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D - PUBLISHERS
Dahrooge Post Card Co. (1907-1916)
A publisher of view-cards in tinted halftone, usually with an obvious RGB pallet. They began producing military postcards during the First World War.
London Daily Mail 1896-
This broadsheet was London’s first daily paper. The tabloid started publishing postcards of newsworthy events and comics at least as early as 1904, but they are best known for the cards they printed during the First World War. They were granted the official right to publish war images from the British Press Bureau though a biding process and promises to donate half the profits to war charities. These cards in sepia rotogravures and tinted halftone were issued in 22 sets of eight cards each, with many of the colored images later being reprinted in sepia or black & white. Millions of these cards were printed and they initially sold very well. After the paper began a critical campaign against Lord Kitchener, sales fell dramatically as the public generally viewed him as a war hero. Because of the paper’s record of strong support for Hitler and Mussolini it became impractical for them to print similar postcards during the Second World War. Today the paper is still sometimes refered to as the Daily Heil.
N. W. Damm & Son 1843-2007
This large publishing house was founded by Niels Wilhelm Damm. In addition to books they produced a large number of artist signed postcards. In 1984 they were bought out and became a division within the Egmont Corporation. Latter they merged with J.W. Cappelens to become Cappelen Damm; part of the media giant Bonnier since 2007.
Daniels & Fisher Stores Co. 1864-1957
This firm grew into a major department store chain through which it sold the postcards that it published. In 1957 they merged with the May Company to become May Daniels & Fisher.
Danziger & Berman (1909-1920)
Published view-cards of southern New England and New York State. Some high quality tinted collotypes were printed in Germany, but most of their tinted halftone cards that were printed in United States were crudely colored.
Darter Brothers & Co. (1838-)
Originally the booksellers Darter Brothers & Walton. They expanded into the printing and publishing business producing illustrated books. They were especially known for their botanical reproductions. After establishing their Fine Art Gallery they became an early publisher of lithographic artist signed postcards.
Davidson Brothers (1901-1911)
A publisher of continuous toned lithographic and tinted real photo postcards. Produced the comic postcards for Tom Browne, who may have had a commercial interest in the company. They also published may other comics, holiday cards, moonlight scenes, art reproductions, and stage portraits. Some of their real photo postcards on bromide paper were manufactured in the same format as the Rotograph Company’s O series.
A.M. Davis & Co. 1907-1916
Publisher and printer of holiday and greeting postcards, many of them with mottos. Many military themes were covered during the First World War. They also produced a number of artist signed cards, many with children’s themes issued in the Timeless Series. Beryl Hay and Louis Wain both created illustrated sets for this series. Purchased by Rust Craft Publishers.
Degi is short for Deutsche Germalde-Industrie Georgi & Co. This publisher reproduced non institutional paintings on postcards, some with embossed brushstrokes and heavy varnishing to simulate the surface of a real painting. While they placed a number of pictures on their cards from well known names, most of their output has a kitschy look to it.
Jacques Marcel Delboy (1903-1941)
A photographer who published his work as black & white collotype postcards and souvenir booklets. Some of his cards were hand colored.
Delittle, Fenwick & Co. (1901-1914)
Printers and publishers of a variety of items including a newspaper and postcards under the trade name Defco. They are best known for their many view-cards, comics, and political cartoons. They also contracted printing work for many other publishers.
De Luca & Bardelloni (1896-1904)
A printer of chromolithographic posters, maps, and postcards. Many of their cards commemorated the military feats of Italian regiments.
ETW Dennis & Sons, Ltd. 1901-
A publisher of a variety of lithographic postcard types in series. Their Dainty Series presented artist signed views printed in halftone. Another series were views in black & white but with a blue sky. Among the many types of novelty cards they published was a risque hold to light card the of the 1950’s known as Shadowgraphs. Their early cards were not numbered.
The Dennison News Co. (1905-1909)
A distributor of printed material and a publisher of postcards depicting views and native Americans. Many of their view-cards depict out of the way places and capture a strong feeling for the West despite their ordinary character.
The Detroit Publishing Co. 1880’s-1936
Originally a printer of religious books and calendars, the Detroit Photographic Company Ltd. shifted production in 1897 when owners William A. Livingstone and Edwin H. Husher saw the potential in postcards. After negotiations with Orell Fussli, Detroit became the sole American company to license the Swiss photochrom process, which they would eventually register in 1907 under the name Phostint. In addition they would also distributed Swiss made prints for Fussli in America. When the well known Western photographer William Henry Jackson joined the company as a partner, he added his thousands of negatives to Livingstone’s collection of Great Lakes imagery and Husher’s photos of California. All this provided a strong foundation to start publishing postcards. Jackson traveled around the United States taking many additional pictures until 1903 when he took over the management of Detroit’s factory. By 1904 as postcards sales increased to 7 million per year they changed their name to the Detroit Publishing Company. They produced postcards on a great variety of subjects but they are best known for their view-cards. The quality of their cards are considered some of the finest produced in America. They also printed many contract cards whose numbers increased as ordinary sales began to fall. Many of their views found on postcards were also produced as larger sized prints. Detroit went into receivership in 1924 but printed contract cards until 1932. The look of these cards changed over the years as the phostint technique was secretly perfected. All their cards were printed in Detroit except for a rare few from Austria and Switzerland.
The Detroit Publishing Company is particularly known for creating many types of variations during reprinting. Some cards with low identification numbers may look newer than those with higher numbers because they were reprinted in a more modern format years later without changing their number.
Some of the images used by Detroit in their early years can be found on cards of other publishers, most notably the private mailing cards of Edward H. Mitchell. While there are no definitive answers to be had, it is known that detroit sold photographs to many different companies before they started printing postcards, and Detroit also was known to print cards for other publishers.
1898 Numbered F1 to F92 under Detroit Photochrom Company.
1902 Numbered 6000 to 6999. While best known for their American views they also produced some foreign scenes most notably an untypical series on Japan.
1903-1904 Numbered 7000 to 7999
1905-1907 Numbered 60000 to 60557 These were all art reproductions.
1906-1907 Numbered 10000 to 10999 Began using the term Phostint Card.
1907 Numbered 14000 to 14751 These cards were of a variety of subjects including art cards, cartoons in line block, and portraits. Those numbered 14800 to 14999 were regular view-cards.
Series 50000 to 59065 were of images made both as postcards and lithographic prints.
Series 79000 to 79999 were view-cards printed for other publishers begun in 1910.
Series H1199 to H4160 were contract cards printed from 1901-1932 for Fred Harvey.
Some Detroit cards were printed in Switzerland. The titles on these were in bright red instead of the usual grey lettering and the have an overall reddish color cast. Swiss cards seem to be confined to the 5000 and 6000 series but the subjects chosen seen to follow no pattern.
Other small series included art cards, photo-type cards, real photo art reproductions, mottoes, long panoramic cards, and boxed sets known as Little Phostint Journeys. There were many additional cards printed without any numbers for private contracts.
Thomas Dexter Press 1934-1977
Thomas A. Dexter opened his first printshop in Park Ridge, NJ in 1920. He moved to Pearl River, NY eight years later, and by the 1930’s he was producing postcards, mostly linens but also black & white and hand colored cards covering a wide variety of subjects. Although an early pioneer of natural color images, the firms output seems to have only turned exclusively to photochromes after they moved to West Nyack, NY around 1952 when their old shop grew too small. Thomas Dexter is also known as the inventor of gang printing, a method that increase his capacity to take on additional orders from other postcard publishers. While their production of roadside and NY Worlds Fair cards was strong, they sold the company to Consolidated Foods in 1972, with Thomas’ son Robert Reardon staying on as masnager. By 1977 slowing business forced them to merged with MWM Color Press, and by 1984 they closed the New York plant and moved to Aurora, MO. As a subsidiary they now print religious material under the MWM Dexter name.
While most of the photochromes printed by Dexter Press boor the words Genuine Natural Color, and often made reference to their origins from Kodachrome film, they went through a variety of phases. Their early chromes were issued under the name Dextone and tended to be flat and somewhat dull in appearance. As years went by their optical blending techniques improved producing richer and more varied colors.
Moorli Dhur & Sons (1899-)
A major Indian owned publishing house that produced many postcards of views and types from India and from what is now Pakistan. These cards were made as black & white and tinted collotypes printed in both Germany and Great Britain.
Olga Diakow & Co. (1918-1925)
A publisher of fine illustrated books and lithographic postcards. They specialized in reproducing paintings by Russian artists.
Diamond News Co. (1900-1906)
A publisher and distributor of postcard views depicting Cuba and other travel related material. Since their cards were printed in English rather than Spanish they were probably geared toward the American forces occupying Cuba at that time. Their cards were printed to comply with American Post Office Department regulations as seen in their private mailling cards.
F. A. Dickerman (1894-1910)
This small newsdealer published many view-cards depicting local scenes.
H. A. Dickerman & Son (1907-1936)
An important publisher of New England view-cards, mostly in black & white or hand colored. They nearly dominated the Cape Cod postcard market.
J. Dickoph (1907)
A photographer who published view-cards of local scenes. These hand colored collotype were manufactured in Germany.
Dicks & Co. Ltd. (1892-)
They began their operations as bookbinders and stationers but their business was destroyed by a fire that swept through St. John in 1892. After rebuilding they began publishing books and postcards depicting local views. These cards were printed in Belgium with a simple RGB pallet but in high quality tinted collotype.
Louis Diefenthal (1903-1913)
A publisher of local view-cards as black & white and color collotypes. The views they captured represented the new modern Amsterdam as well as traditional scenes.
Dietrich & Cie (1891-1938)
The first art bookstore in Brussels and a important publisher of art books, posters, illustrated guides, and artist signed postcards. Many of their fine lithographic postcards were commissioned pieces from notables such as Cassiers and Henri Mounier.
Karoly Divald & Sons 1890-1970
Karoly Divald, a pioneer in Hungarian photography began his career in 1860. By 1879 he added collotype printing to his services, and with his three sons, Karoly, Jr., Lajos, and Adolf the name of his firm was changed from the Karoly Institute to Karoly Divald & Sons. After Karoly retired in 1890 his studios and photo art galley were divided up among his sons to run but Karoly, Jr. refocused his efforts in Budapest. All were publishing vast amounts of postcards but in 1912 Karoly, Jr. went into business with Gyorgy Monostory. This new firm, the Divald & Monostory Company began a taking a series of photographs depicting all important views, historical sites, and monuments in Hungary, which were then turned into collotype printed postcards, some with hand coloring. This firm closed in the early years of the Second World War and their fine art galley was torn down in 1970.
D.K. & Co. (1912-1915)
A publisher of printed and hand colored real photo postcards depicting views of the Austrian Empire, neighboring Countries and Palestine. They also produced many cards of local types and artist signed cards.
Leon Louis Dolice 1920-1960
After migrating form Vienna to New York’s Greenwich Village, Dolice produced a large number of etchings depicting scenes around the City. These etchings were later published by Dolice as black & white postcards in halftone lithography.
Dobson, Molle & Co., Ltd. 1920-1960
A publisher and printer of posters and postcards. They produced many propaganda cards during World War One.
Donaldson Brothers 1872-1891
After his service in the Civil War George W. Donaldson found work at the printers Hatch & Co. By 1872 he went into partnership with his brothers Frank, John, and Robert to form his own firm Donaldson Brothers Steam Lithographic Printers. This company grew into major printing firm producing a wide variety of chromolithographic material including a large quantities of trade and advertising cards of which many were die cut or had moving parts. After suffering a major fire in 1887 they were forced to rebuild their plant, but this gave them the chance to modernize. Though they consolidated into the American Lithographic Company in 1891, they continued to use their own name for about another ten years. George Donaldson became Vice President of this new company and served for about five years.
Reuben H. Donnelley Corp. 1916 -
A printer and publisher of various items but most notably of phone books. This company formed from the dissolution of the Chicago Directory Company, a subsidiary of the worlds largest publisher, R.R. Donnelley & Sons. In 1933 and 1934 they published the official postcards to Chicago’s A Century of Progress as black & white duographs and in color.
Doolittle & Kulling, Inc. (1908-1910)
A publisher of holiday and regional view-cards in tinted halftone. Many of their cards were oriented toward foreign tourists in the United States.
Doubleday-Foster Photo Co., Inc. (D.F.P.Co., Inc.) 1910-1955
Published and Distributed postcards made from the photographs of Ralph Russell Doubleday. Doubleday began his career creating stereo-views for Underwood & Underwood. After he began taking pictures of rodeos, their great popularity allowed him to start his own company traveling the circuit and selling postcards. His willingness to take great risks provided him with the first known action photo of a rider thrown into the air. Other images of performers, towns, and amusements were also captured on his cards, all with detailed descriptions of his subjects. He produced over 30 million postcards as real photos, and printed additional images through Curt Teich, earning him the name Rodeo Postcard King. Woolworth sold many of his cards through their Five & Dimes. In later years Doubleday dropped Foster and began distributing cards himself under his own name through his many offices. By the early 1950’s he began working for the Drake Studio in Ponca City, OK but badly failing eyesight forced his retirement and he moved to Council Bluffs, IW. The many tall tales that surrounded his life make it difficult today to form an accurate history of his work.
Douglas Post Card & Machine Co. (1900-1908)
A publisher of halftone arcade cards in line block on heavy card stock but with postcard backs. Most of their subjects were either risqué or comic.
H. & W.B. Drew Co. 1855-
Founded by Columbus Drew as a stationary and printing company. They published many postcards in addition to producing many books. Some of these cards were contracted out to Curt Teich.
Drukarnia Narodowa SA 1858-
After being founded in Sambor by Francis Xawery Pobudkiewicz, this publishing house moved to Krakow in 1861. They later produced many art reproductions in tinted halftone. In 1939 on the eve of World War Two they published and exceptional set of continental size propaganda cards in color gravure celebrating the Polish-American fraternity.
Adolphe Duperly & Sons 1840-1955
Adolphe Duperly was trained as an engraver and lithographer but shifted his interest to photography soon after it was introduced to the public. This pioneer produced many early daguerreotypes. His sons Henri Louis and Oscar also became photographers capturing many of Jamaica’s first views in photos. The company became the first Kodak dealer in the region as they expanded their photo work beyond their island. Outside of producing photo books they published many hand colored collotype postcards that they had printed in Germany.
Henri moved to Columbia in 1876 adding many scenes of South America and the Panama Canal to their inventory. He would eventually publish printed postcards of South America and Jamaica as tinted collotypes under the H.S. Duperly & Son name. Oscar also moved to Columbia in 1915 where he opened a photo lab that is still in business.
E.P. Dutton & Co. 1852-1986
Edward Payson Dutton began his book selling business in Boston in 1852. By 1864 he had moved to New York to become and important book publisher. This firm also published a great many finely printed holiday postcards that were manufactured in Europe. Most notable are their chromolithographed cards printed by Ernest Nister. Dutton was purchased by Penguin Books in 1986.
Duval News Co. (1904-)
A publisher and distributor of guides, souvenir booklets, and local view-cards that were printed in a variety of techniques over the years.