Japonisme is a term coined by the French critic Philippe Burty in 1876 to describe the influence of Japanese artistic styles on Western art after Japan was opened to trade in 1854. As Western art movements began to rejected Victorian moralism in favor of aesthetics, they became fertile ground for the acceptance of new stylistic forms. The flattened patterns of Japanese art created abstract like compositions that had great appeal to this receptive audience. As artists ceased to be trapped by scientific perspective, a whole new wave of experimentation and innovation emerged. Japonisme affected everything from architecture to the popularization of the kimono, but its greatest influence was on the fine and graphic arts, especially in Europe. Many postcards display this influence in their design, and others incorporate real life influences of Japanese culture.
Jiffy-Card is a trade name used by the WIPCO Greeting Card Company for their linen fill-in postcards issued during the Second World War.
A jobber or drummer is a wholesaler who acts as a middleman in the low end of distribution. Jobbers purchased postcards from distributors, clearing houses, or directly from publishers who in turn would sell them to various retail stores or newsstands that they had established ties with. Often cards printed in a single press run would be divided up to allow small businesses to carry a variety of cards in their inventory that they could not afford to publish in quantity on their own. Some jobbers advertised their distribution services, which were particularly sought by European publishers who did not maintain offices in the United States. Jobbers could also work as salesmen taking requests for postcards from various retail establishments, and they would also bid on printing contracts on behalf of small stores.
A jobbing platen is a smaller version of the platen press. They were created in the United States in the latter half of the 19th century in a variety of types to accommodate the specific needs of small print houses. Jobbing platens were used almost exclusively in America.
Jugendstil (Youth Style) is the German form of Art Nouveau that emerged in the mid-1890’s. The name is derived from Die Jugend, an influential magazine published in Munich that featured Art Nouveau graphics. The origins of the style lie in folk art traditions that were heavily influenced by English and Japanese decorative floral design. By the turn of the 20th century, there was a tendency for this style to incorporate more abstract elements. Junendstil was incorporated into many German postcards until the First World War.
See Art Nouveau for more information on this subject.