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T - ARTISTS
Raffaele Tafuri 1857-1929
Tafuri was primarily a landscape painter in an romanticized academic style that incorporated the Venetian and Neapolitan traditions of his teachers. His bright pallet was more obvious in his watercolors; a medium he also used to design postcards. Most of these chromolithographic cards depict loosely painted scenes of Venice, though he also produced more tightly drawn holiday cards under the influence of Art Nouveau.
Margaret Winifred Tarrant 1899-1959
Margaret was the daughter of the landscape painter Percy Tarrant. She studied at the Clapham, Heatherley’s, and Guildford Schools of Art. She began her career by producing illustrations for Water Babies in 1908, followed by images for other children’s books, posters, greeting cards, calendars, and postcards. Tarrant was known for her depictions of flowers, religious subjects, and especially fairies. In 1920 she began a long relationship with the Medici Society, who published most of her postcards. Around the mid-1930’s she moved to Peaslake, and eventually Cornwall.
Ignatius Taschner 1871-1913
In 1889 Tascher moved to Munich where he attended the Academy. By 1903 he had moved to Breslau to teach at the Academy there but within two years he established a studio in Berlin to concentrate on designing architectural sculptures and fountains. He also painted and illustrated posters and postcards in a highly personal graphic style.
Margaret Mary Tempest 1892-1982
After attending the Westminster School of Art in 1914, Tempest became a well known illustrator. While she created watercolors to accompany her own stories such as Pinkie Mouse and Curly Cibbler, her best known work comes from the 34 volumes of Little Frey Rabbit Books she illustrated between 1929 and the 1960’s. Many of these pictures were placed on postcards published by the Medici Society. Tempest was also a cofounder of the Chelsea Illustrators Club in 1919, and she exhibited with them until 1939. In her later years she was forced to cease working by the onset of Parkinson’s disease.
Richard Teschner 1879-1948
Teschner moved to Prague in 1896 to study at the Academy and the Royal Museum of Arts and Industrial Design. He set up his own studio in 1901 as a painter. printmaker, sculpture, and book illustrator. Two years later he was introduced to puppet theater, an art form that would come to possess him. He moved to Vienna in 1909 finding work with the Wiener Werkstätte and designing fanciful postcards, but by this time his primary interest was in puppets. After returning from a trip to the Netherlands where he saw puppets from Java, he formed his own puppet theatre, Figuren Spiegel to much acclaim.
Lance Thackeray 1870/79?-1916
Thackaray was a painter and illustrator who contributed numerous images for postcards. While most of these cards were comic or satyrical in nature, he produced holiday cards as well.
Carl Robert Arthur Thiele 1860-1936
Thiele was a prolific illustrator who produced many postcards that were largely published through Theo Stroefer. While he depicted a wide variety of subjects, Thiele always did so through humor and satire. His narratives tend to be clever and his compositions are often very complex. Even so it is his simple anthropomorphic animals that have become the favorite of many. During World War One his use of humor continued, but some of his satire grew more harsh and he also produced many cards that presented German soldiers as ordinary people.
Hans Thoma 1839-1924
In his early years, Thoma worked at lacquering clocks and for a lithography shop in Basel. He took up landscape painting after returning to Bernau and was encourage to seek formal training. He began studies at the Karlsruhe Academy in 1859 followed by a trip to Paris in 1869 where his realist style was solidified. Returning to Germany he worked in Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, and Munich where in 1870 he met the symbolist painter Arnold Bocklin who greatly influenced his work. The new narrative style he embraced was further enhanced by the five trips he made to Italy between 1874 and 1897. His realist style had long been out of touch with popular taste but by the turn of the 20th century he was finally finding an audience, and was even included in the Vienna Secession. Thoma was also a printmaker adept in a number of mediums. He used his graphic skills in postcard design, though many of his paintings were also reproduced on cards.
Tomikichiro Tokuriki 1902-1999
Tokuriki came from a long line of artists, so it was no surprise that he would study at the Kyoto School of Fine Arts and the Specialist School of Painting. After graduating in 1924 he worked as a painter but he slowly became engrossed in the art of woodblock printing. Kyoto had long been a center for the arts in Japan, and had largely come out of World War Two unscathed. It was in this environment that Tokuriki established his own woodblock publishing house, Matsukyu, in 1945, where he both carved and printed images. This firm published his own work and that of others working within the Sosaka and Shin Hanga revival, as prints and as postcards. The backs of these postcards are in both Japanese and English so that they would be more attractive to the American occupying forces and tourists.
Jean (Jan) Theodoor Toorop 1858-1928
In 1872 Toorop left the Dutch East Indies for the Netherlands where he studied painting in Delft and at the Academies in Amsterdam and Brussels. Between 1882 and 1886 he was part of the art group Les XX in Brussels. While his early work was impressionistic, he latter experimented with a variety of post-impressionistic styles. After traveling to England in 1884 the influence of William Blake and the Pre-Raphaelites show up in his work. Around 1890 Toorop begins producing Symbolist work and would eventually join the Quatre-vingts group. His work became even more personalized after adopting a very linear style based Javanese design and and influenced by Art Nouveau. He held strong interests in mysticism, and after he converted to Catholicism in 1905 these tendencies grew stronger. In addition to his paintings and woodcuts, Toorop drew magazine illustrations and designed posters and numerous black & white postcards, many with religious themes.
Harmann Torggler 1878-1939
Torggler was primarily a portrait painter of the upper class. After leaving the Munich Academy he moved to Vienna in 1908 but made a trip to Paris a year later to further his studies. Some of his drawings were published as postcards.
Stuart Travis 1868-1942
After studying at the Academy Julian in Paris during the mid-1880’s, Travis began his career as a painter, illustrator, and artisan. While a number of his images wound up in Vogue, and Puck, not to mention on postcards, he created all sorts of decorative work. These can be observed in New York’s Hotel de Artistes, and the map murals he painted for steamship lines. By the 1920’s he had become disillusioned with his work, claiming what he was turning out under the name of art was fiction. Disliking modern trends in art he became more reclusive and began concentrating on creating murals with historical and social themes, most notably for the Phillips Academy in Andover, and the Peabody Museum in Salem, Massachusetts.
Charles Twelvetrees 1888-1948
Twelvetrees was an illustrator who primarily created rather simple images of rosy cheeked children in watercolor. They were used on a variety of products, which around 1906 began to include postcard greetings and valentines. His work was used by many different publishers such as Edward Gross, Ullman Manufacturing, Reinthal & Newman, and Raphael Tuck. Between 1909 and 1911 he also drew the comic strip Johnny Quack and the Van Cluck Twins for the New York Herald. Twelvetrees illustrated a number of covers for Collier’s, Pictorial Review, and the Home Magazine, and became a noted calendar artist by the 1930’s. His Twelvetree Kids also became the model for some Horsman dolls.
There is much confusion to the exact identity of Twelvetrees. Some attribute the postcards to a Charles R. Twelvetrees and the magazine covers and comic strip to a Charles H. Twelvetrees. There is some speculation that Charles H. was the father of Charles R. and that the two collaborated on art work, but there is no firm evidence to back this up. Others claim that all work is by Charles H. and that Charles R. never existed. Adding to the confusion there also seems to be a Charles Henry Twelvetrees, born in 1872, who was also an artist.