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Xavier Sager 1870-1930
Little is known about Sager before he moved to Paris at the turn of the 20th century. There he began a prolific career as a postcard illustrator, ultimately producing about 3,000 cards. Paris at this time had a reputation both for its fashion and its loose morals, both of which Sager did his best to exploit. While many of his cards deal with high fashion, they were very often comically risqué to outright erotic. He often depicted vice either through biting satire or by capturing it in a glamourous manner. His figures drawn in a consistent simple flat style were usually placed against a blank background. This lack of pictorial space combined with variances in scale gives his work a very unique graphic style and modern look. Many of these postcards were hand colored with an untypical bright pallet, though he produced a large series of fashion cards in black & white. He also produced various sets of cards with military themes during the First World War. Sager sometimes worked under different pseudonyms such as Leger and Salt Lake.
Alexander Nikolayevich Samokhvalov 1894-1971
Samokhvalov began exhibiting in 1914, the same year he entered the Imperial Academy in St. Petersburg. He would continue his studies at the Petrograd Institute graduating in 1923. As a painter, illustrator, and graphic artist, Samokhvalov belonged to a number of art associations; Krug between 1926 and 1929, October from 1930 to 1932, and from 1932 onwards the Leningrad Union of Artists. Though he largely painted portraits and children in a somewhat impressionist style, he is considered a social realist of the Leningrad school. A number of his images were placed on postcards.
Nikolai Samokish 1860-1944
Samokish attended the Academy in St. Petersburg between 1878 and 1885 immediately followed by further studies in Paris until 1889. Back in Russia he would set up a studio in St. Petersburg, where he became a member of the Academy and taught battle scene painting until 1918. By 1923 he was a member of the Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia. He was already known for his battle scene paintings, created in the 19th century tradition of such work, when he began a series depicting battles of the Russian Civil War in a heroic manner. In addition to this he also painted many images of animals. Samokish also worked as a graphic artist producing etchings and illustrations for books and postcards. He later moved his studio to Kharkov and then to Simferopol. In 1937 he became an Honored Art Worker.
Guglielmo Sansoni 1896-1974
Sansoni worked as a painter, photographer, and designer. After moving to Rome in 1924 he closely aligned himself to the Futurist Movement. In 1930 he co-authored the Manifesto of Futurist Photography with Marinetti the movements founder that among other things called for the transformation of objects to suggest an inner state of mind. He was a strong supporter of Fascism and he produced many works glorifying it from murals to postcards. As his work shifted toward aviation themes he was dubbed an Areo-Futurist, and received much patronage from the Italian Air Force. Sansoni signed his work under the pseudonym Tato.
Miles W. Sater 1881-1953
Sater was a lithographer and illustrator who primarily worked as a newspaper artist in Chicago. In 1914 he designed a set of 12 postcards for P.F. Volland’s Art Lovers Series depicting views of Chicago.
Lina von Schauroth 1874-1970
After her studies in Paris, Lina Holtmann married a military officer, Hans von Schauroth in 1885. Though he died in 1909, her familyŐs wealth allowed her to travel to Munich where she studied art privately. She created many paintings, prints, and sculpture on equestrian themes but is best known for her mosaics and glass paintings for churches. She used her husband’s connections to get her underage nephew into the military during World War One, and was very affected by his death. She went on a quest to personally recover his body. During the war she designed a number of posters and postcards for soldierŐs relief, and also traveled to the front lines to deliver aid. After the war she supported the Kapp Putsch against the new Weimar Republic and was sentenced to prison when it failed. Receiving amnesty, she went on to managed a soldierŐs home. She also continued working on church windows until her studio was destroyed in 1944. Some of these became controversial due to the inclusion of military symbolism. In the postwar years she turned her attention to the cause of animal welfare.
Wilhelmina Schermele 1904-1995
Schermele was a writer and illustrator of children’s books. In addition many of her drawings were used to make postcards.
Egon Schiele 1890-1918
Schiela began his studies at the School of Arts and Crafts in Vienna in 1906 but moved on to the Vienna Academy that same year. Unhappy with the conservative curriculum he sought out private studies with Gustav Klimt and finally left the Academy altogether in 1909 to found his own artistic group Neukunstgruppe with fellow students of like mind. Klimt had introduced him to the Wiener Werkstätte and as a member he began producing postcards. Though Schiele was primarily a painter, his work was imbued with a highly graphic style derived from Jungendstil, which was not uncommon among the more unconventional Austrian artists of that time. What made his work more unique was his expressive nervous line and his proclivity for painting nudes that were posed in a disturbing or at least in a non-idealized manner. He was forced to move twice because of the disapproving relationship he had with the young girls he used for models and in 1912 he landed in prison for exposing minors to his work, which many considered pornography. Schiele’s work however would only grow in importance as he exhibited with the Secessions in Munich and in Vienna. He escaped harm while in military service during the First World War, but both he and his wife succumbed to the great influenza outbreak of 1918. Today many of his paintings can also be found on postcards as reproductions.
Rudolf Schiestl 1878-1931
Ruldolf along with Heinz and Matthew were all artists and known collectively as the Schiestl Brothers. Their father was a craftsman who restored medieval sculpture; and the contents of his shop seem to have influenced Rudolf’s work as much as his studies at the Munich Academy. In 1910 he began teaching at the School of Applied art in Nuremberg while he continued expanding his skills into etching and woodblock printing. These skills were applied to his illustrative work that included poster-stamps and postcards. Some of these postcards were issued in an oversized format. After 1927 he concentrated almost exclusively on his painting.
Viktor Schivert 1863-1928
Schivert studied at the Academies of Graz and Munich. Heavily influenced by Symbolism he dedicated himself to predominantly painting historical scenes. Many of his paintings were reproduced on postcards.
Ernst Emil Schlatter 1883-1954
Schlatter was a printmaker and graphic artist who studied lithography in Zurich and in Stuttgart. In 1910 he began producing posters for the fine art printer J.E. Wolfensberger and at the same time began to supply many images for postcards. By 1920 he left Zurich for Utzwil where he worked independently.
Matthaus Schiestl 1869-1939
Schiestl was an academic painter who infused nearly all of his landscapes with Christian allegory. While some of his scenes are of such rural character that it is difficult to place them in time, other pieces are clearly set against a medieval backdrop. Many of his paintings were used on postcards.
Oskar Schlemmer 1888-1943
Schlemmer’s parents died when he was twelve years old, and within a few years he was supporting himself as an apprentice in a furniture workshop. While there he began studying at the Kunstgewerbeschule. Between 1906 and 1911 he attended the Academy in Stuttgart. He moved to Berlin afterwards to set up a painting studio, but by 1913 he was back in Stuttgart for some private studies. This was short lived for he was soon serving in the Infantry when World War One erupted. After being wounded while fighting on the Western Front, the army used his skills for drawing maps. After the war he took up sculpture, which brought him to the attention of the Bauhaus. By 1923 he had become their theater workshop’s master of form. Though heavily influenced by Cubism, Schlemmer rejected pure abstraction, concentrating instead on radical ideas concerning the figure in space. He applied these ideas to both his visual and theatrical work. While at the Bauhaus, he designed postcards for the Weimar Exposition of 1923, which were issued as miniature works of art. He resigned from the Bauhaus in 1929 over political differences and took up a teaching position at the Academy in Breslau. The school closed early due to financial strain; and although he found new work in Berlin, he was forced by the Nazis to resign after teaching for only one year. Though he did some work as a muralist, it became increasingly difficult to produce art despite his international recognition. He had been living near the Swiss border when his work was included in the 1937 Degenerate Art Exposition. Banned from producing art, he returned to Stuttgart the following year sometimes finding ways to continue working. Some of his talents were used during World War Two when he designed camouflage.
Erich Schmal (Schmal-Walter) 1886-1964
Schmal received his art education at various institutions in Vienna. In 1904 he attended the Hohenberger School of Drawing for a year followed by studies at the Graphic Education and Research Institute. Between 1905 and 1907 he attended the School for Applied Arts and then spent one year at the Vienna Academy. Afterwards he worked as a painter, illustrator, and graphic designer. He contributed illustrations to the magazines Muskete, Erdgeist, and Simplicissimus. He also designed architectural and fashion postcards for the Wiener Werkstätte.
Rudolf Schmidt 1873-1963
Schmidt was a landscape painter who illustrated many postcards with his watercolors.
Samuel L. Schmucker 1879-1921
Even though Schmucker’s right hand was partially paralyzed from the polio he suffered as a child, he sill perused a career in the arts. After attending the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia, and Howard Pyle’s school in Drexel he began working as a commercial artist in 1905 by drawing fashion illustrations for the Philadelphia Daily Press. He soon found additional work making illustrations for the Detroit Publishing Company. They were placed on 52 postcards divided into 8 sets entitled Smokes, Mermaid, Drinks, Butterfly Girls, Childhood Days, Gnomes, International Girls, and Fairy Queen. This success lead him to design many more holiday postcards for the John Winsch Company. He used his wife, Katherine Rice as a model for most of these cards, and through these consistent portrayals she became known as the Winsch Girl, except on Detroit cards where she was referred to as the Schmucker Girl. His style is composed of a strange hybrid between the American Brandywine tradition and European Art Nouveau. Schmucker moved to Wilmington, Delaware in 1910 but only three years later he moved again, this time to New York in search of work. There he found employment decorating all sorts of objects. Starting in 1915 he would produce another 130 postcard designs for the National Art Company, but he finally took a job as an accountant in 1917 to make ends meet.
Alfred Schonian 1856-1936
Schonian produced many paintings of birds and cats, but he is best known for his depictions of gnomes and other mythical creatures of the forest. These images and winter scenes were placed on postcards and holiday cards.
Carlos Schwabe 1866-1926
Schwabe’s family moved to Geneva when he was a child and he became a Swiss national in 1888. He would study art there at the School of Industrial Arts and in 1890 in Paris where he was strongly influenced by the French Symbolists. He would exhibit with them at the Salons de la Rose Croix between 1892 and 1897. Though primarily a painter, he began working with color etchings in 1897. Schwabe also designed wallpaper and made illustrations for books, posters, and postcards in an Art Nouveau style, though some of his symbolist paintings were also placed on postcards. Today many of these same works appear on modern postcards as art reproductions.
Felix Schwarmstadt 1870-1938
Schwarmstadt was a painter and graphic artist who produced a variety of work from Christmas cards to posters for steamship lines. During World War One many of his gouaches depicting scenes at the front lines were reproduced as real photo postcards by E.P. & Co.
Karl Schwetz 1888-1965
After leaving the Vienna School of Arts & Crafts in 1907, Schwetz found work as an illustrator. Between 1909 and 1913 he produced postcards for the Wiener Werkstätte. While many of his watercolors were used on postcards, his heart seemed to lay in illustrations and decorative graphics made through etching or wood engraving where he could render contemporary views free of nostalgia and often infused with contemporary social issues. In addition to his graphic work, Schwetz was a designer of porcelain at Augarten. He was married to the ceramist Ida Lehmann.
Jaroslav Setelik 1881-1955
Setelik studied at the Academies of Prague and Munich followed by travels through Holland and France. He is best known for his somewhat impressionistic landscape paintings of Prague. Many of these images were published on postcards in the new republic of Czechoslovakia following the First World War.
Cecily Elmslie Shand 1898-1979
Shand was an illustrator who worked in an Art Deco Style. A number of her watercolors were used on postcards.
Conrad X. Shinn 1887-1951
Shinn grew up in Indianapolis and attended the Herron School of Art. He would begin designing postcards in 1907 producing 165 sets under the name Cobb Shinn. By the 1920’s he concentrated on children’s book illustrations and creating stock pictures for newspapers.
Kenneth D. Shoesmith 1890-1939
Shoesmith grew up in Blackpool, and though he showed talent for art he followed the path of an officer on steamships of the Royal Mail Line. During these years he taught himself how to paint and draw, and in 1918 he left shipboard service to take up art full time. He worked for various steamship companies but mostly for his former line, plus the Canada Pacific Railways designing posters and postcards. He is also well known for the murals and altar pieces he painted for the Queen Mary. While his early work is more traditional, his compositions became more dynamic under the influence of Art Deco trends. Shoesmith exhibited with the London Royal Academy and the Paris Salon. He was a member of the Royal Institute of Painters and the British Society of Poster Designers.
Vasily Ivanovich Shukhaev 1887-1973
Shukhaev studied at the Stroganov School of Art and Industry and the Academy in St. Petersburg, which he left in 1912. He had already been exhibiting his paintings since 1909, but now he also involved himself in graphics, which included postcard illustration, and design work for the theater. He became a World of Art (Mir Iskusstra) member in 1917. Shukhaev absorbed modernist tendencies as he traveled abroad; to Italy between 1912 and 1914, Finland in 1920, and Paris in 1921. After his travels through souther France, Spain, and Morocco in the early 1930’s he became more of a colorist. Two years after his return to Leningrad in 1935 he was arrested for espionage and was confined at the Magadan Labor Camp until 1947. After his release he moved to Tbilisi, Georgia where he began painting in tempera.
Jutta Sika 1877-1964
In 1887 Sika moved to Vienna with her family. Between 1895 and 1897 she attended the Graphic Education and Research Institute followed by studies at the Vienna School of Applied Arts until 1902. She became a designer of ceramics, glass, metalwork, dolls, fashion, and graphics. Sika was a cofounder of Wiener Kunst im Hause, and later joined the Wiener Werkstätte where she designed postcards in 1912. She stylized her very graphic images into strong yet readable abstractions. In 1911 she began a long career as a teacher, and in 1930 took up additional studies in costume design. By the 1920’s she began to concentrate on producing painted florals and landscape etchings in a less stylized manner.
Selma Singer-Sohinnerl 1895-1955?
Selma, or Suzi as she was better known attended the School for Arts and Crafts in Vienna. Despite being crippled from the malnutrition she suffered during the First World War, she would go on to become a very influential ceramist. Between 1917 and 1925 she created ceramics and designed postcards for the Wiener Werkstätte, which was followed by the opening of her own studio, Grunbach am Scheeberg. After the Nazis took power in Austria she managed to escape to the United States in 1938 and set up a new studio in Pasadena.
Franz Skarbina 1849-1910
After leaving the Berlin Academy in 1869, Skarbina began his career as a painter, etcher, and illustrator. He would further his studies in 1877 with travel to Holland, Belgium, and Paris where he was influenced by the Impressionists. He would settle there in 1882 and began showing with the Paris Salon within a year. Unsatisfied with the conservatism he encountered after returning to Berlin, he joined the Group of Eleven in 1892, and began showing with the Berlin Secession in 1898. Many of his watercolors were used to illustrate postcards.
Jessie Willcox Smith 1863-1935
Smith began producing illustrations for the Ladies’ Home Journal after leaving the Pennsylvania Academy in 1888. She would continue her studies at the Drexel Institute where she met Elizabeth Shippen Green and Violet Oakley. The three worked closely together on collaborative projects, and when the small apartment they shared grew too crowded they purchased a large estate (Red Rose Inn) just outside Philadelphia in 1901. Nicknamed the Red Rose Girls by Howard Pyle, they became not just well known for their high quality artwork but for their unconventional lifestyle. Smith produced illustrations for advertising and many magazines including Century, Collier’s, Leslie’s, Harper’s. McClure’s, Scribners, and Good Housekeeping. As she grew older, children seemed to grow in importance as subject matter leading to the illustrating of books such as Evangeline, The Child’s Garden of Verses and Water Babies. Many of these images would also be published on postcards. She retired in 1933 due to failing eyesight.
May Ann Smith 1906-1986
May’s father, an engineer, had been building canals in India when she was born. As a child she traveled to England to receive medical attention for a hip injury. While in recovery she was encouraged by her grandmother to learn to paint. This was supplemented by studies at the Diocesan School and Elam School of Art after moving to Aukland, New Zealnd in 1921. She would further her studies in London at the Royal Collage, but after graduating in 1931 she could find few interested in her paintings and etchings during these difficult depression years. She designed some postcards but largely turned her skills toward designing and hand printing textiles with woodblocks. When war broke out in 1939 Smith returned to Aukland. There she would marry and move to Gisborne setting up a textiles business with her husband in 1944, but as the marriage ended in 1952 so did the firm. In 1967 Smith retired to Coromandel where she continued to paint.
Olive Carleton Smyth 1882-1949
Smyth worked as a designer and illustrator while teaching fashion at the Academy in Glasgow. A number of her watercolors were used on postcards. She was heavily influenced by the Arts and Craft movement and Charles R. Mackintosh. Her sister Dorothy was a noted costume designer for the theater.
Max Snischek 1891-1958
Snischek worked as a painter and designer of jewelry, textiles, and graphics. He produced much work with the Wiener Werkstätte, including postcards, and became the head of their fashion department in 1922. While Snischek’s paintings were very loose and expressive, his graphic work was heavily influenced by more hard edged modernist tendencies.
Sergei Sergeerich Solomko 1859-1928
There is some dispute over Solomko’s date of birth, but we do know he attended the Moscow School of Painting and the Academy at St. Petersburg. While he painted miniatures for the Imperial Porcelain Factory and Carl Faborge, he was better known to more common people through his watercolor illustrations for books and the magazines Jugend and Niva. The greater dispersal of his work however came through the many postcards he illustrated depicting fairy tales, mythology, and romantic themes from a time past. While very popular he was not critically acclaimed for his decadent style that rejected depicting contemporary social and political issues in favor of the symbolism of the universal put him at odds with the much more favored itinerants who embraced critical realism. In 1910 he moved to Paris where he continued to illustrate postcards.
Howard Somerville, Esq. 1873-1952
Somerville primarily worked as a portrait painter and etcher. While his style was that of an academic, the illustrations he created for postcards were drawn in a highly graphic style.
Amy Millicent Sowerby 1878-1967
While Sowerby seems to be self taught in watercolor, she no doubt was influenced by her father John who was a painter, illustrator, and glassmaker. She moved to London with her family in 1896 where she began a long career as a children’s book illustrator. She provided images for books such as Alice in wonderland, A Child’s Garden of Verses, and Grimm’s Fairy Tales. In 1905 she began illustrating postcards for a number of different publishers but is best known for Little Ones, sets issued one at a time for thirty years. Her sister Githa was also a well known children’s book writer who she made illustration for.
Joseph Speybrouck 1891-1956
Speybrouck often assisted his father in the restoration of antiquities. He would later create a number of graphic and painterly pieces with strong Catholic themes in an Art Deco style. A large series of black & white linear drawings were published as postcards.
Agnes Speyer 1875-1942
Speyer studied at the General Drawing School and the Vienna School of Applied Arts. Soon after entering in 1901, she traveled to Paris to study at the Academies Julian and Ranson. She returned to Vienna in 1903 and finished her studies there in 1907. Afterwards Speyer worked as a painter, sculptor, and designer of jewelry, fashion, and graphics. In 1907 she designed a single postcard for the Wiener Werkstätte. In 1910 she married Erich Ulmann and from then on produced work as Agnes Ulmann. The couple moved to Munich where she set up a home based solon that became well known. At some point she moved to the United States and died in Kew Gardens, New York.
Ferdinand Spiegel 1879-1950
Spiegel had a long career as an educator, painter, illustrator, and muralist. He contributed to many magazines including Junend and Simplicissimus. Between 1934 and 1935 he designed 12 German postage stamps. His expressions of mythology and heroism made him a favorite of the National Socialist movement, and he exhibited in the Great German Art Exposition in Munich. He also produced many war related images during World War Two. Many of his illustrations appeared on slightly oversized postcards. On these his graphic style combined modern Art Nouveau trends with Medieval traditions.
Sophie Sperlich 1863-1906
Sperlich was a painter, primarily of cats and dogs. Well known publishers such as Theo Stroefer, Raphael Tuck, Ernest Nister, the London View Co., Misch & Co., Woolston Brothers, and Max Ettlinger & Co. all placed her images on their postcards.
Carl Spitzweg 1808-1885
Spitzweg was trained as a pharmacist at the University of Munich, and took up painting to pass time while recovering from a long illness. Though he contributed satirical drawings to magazines, he only began painting full time after receiving his inheritance in 1833. His work in the German Romantic style made him so popular that there was a strong demand for his work after his death. Many of his paintings were continually reproduced on postcards.
Albert Stagura 1846-1947
Stagura was primarily a landscape artist working in oils and pastel. While he painted many cityscapes he is best known for his stark mountain scenes. He illustrated many elaborately designed early chromolithographic postcards.
Penrhyn Stanlaws 1877-1957
Penrhyn Stanlaws, also know as Penly, was born Stanley Adamson but changed his name so not to be confused with his brother Sydney Adamson who was also an artist. After moving to New York City he began a twenty-one year career providing cover illustrations for the Saturday Evening Post. This led to work with other magazines such as the American, Metropolitan, Collier’s, Life, and Judge. Penly was primarily a glamour artist whose is best known for the Stanlaws Girl, modeled after the actress Anna Q. Nilsson. Many of these images were placed on postcards as well. He also organized investors to build the New York coop Hotel des Artistes in 1915 consisting of both apartments and artistŐs lofts. In the 1920&rquo;s he moved to California where he directed seven films, sometimes using the same actresses that had been modeling for him. He died in a fire after falling asleep with a cigarette in hand.
Karl Hans Albert Starcke 1875-1943
Starcke was a poet and illustrator whose comic and satirical drawings began being placed on postcards around 1900. They often showed the influence of Art Nouveau design, which was untypical in this type of work. This continued up to World War One when they took on a military flavor. In 1918 he began working under the pseudonym Hans Huckenbein.
Georges Stein 1855-1930
Stein was a landscape painter and exhibiter at the Paris Salon. He is best known for his highly animated Parisian street scenes. Though they are rendered in a washy impressionistic style there is an air of romanticism about them. Many of these very popular images were placed on postcards.
Bernd Steiner 1884-1933
Steiner worked as a painter, illustrator, graphic designer, and art director for Bremen’s City Theater. He produced many fashion illustrations, and many of these wound up on postcards. In 1919 he began designing posters for Motor Magazine, and the following year for the North German Lloyd steamship line.
Wilhelm Theodor Steinhausen 1846-1924
Steinhausen was a painter and muralist who studied at the Academies of Berlin and Karlsruhe. His early interest in the landscape turned toward religious themes in 1868. In 1871 he traveled to Italy to study the art of fresco. Steinhausen later moved between a number of cities, but settled down in Frankfurt after marrying. He illustrated a number of postcards but he had to stop working in 1914 after suffering a stroke.
Curt Stoopendaal 1893-1965
Curt, the son of Jenny Nyström and Daniel Stoopendaal, began his career as an illustrator in 1933 with his first designs for postcards. He largely drew greeting and holiday cards that included the same type of traditional subjects that his mother had used. He also capitalized on her name, sometimes signing his work as Curt Nyström. While he created other graphic work such as posters, he is best known for his postcards.
Georg Wilhem Stoopendaal 1866-1953
Though Stoopendaal was primarily a painter of rural scenes, often involving animals, he also painted sports pictures and renditions of Native Americans in a loose impressionist style. Like his sister-in-law Jenny Nyström, he also designed postcards in a more solid graphic style.
Willy Stower 1864-1931
Stower was a well known marine artist producing work in both oil and wash. He captured scenes of the German Imperial Navy in ports around the world, and depicted battle scenes from the Spanish American War through World War One. Many of these paintings began being reproduced as chromolithographs in the 1890’s. In addition to the nearly thousand illustrations made for books, his work appeared on posters, calendars, and on postcards. Many of these cards were published by steamship companies for advertising purposes. In 1917 some of Stower’s naval scenes were reproduced in monochrome on charity cards meant to aid the wounded u-boat crew members and the families of the deceased.
Josef Straka 1864-1946
Straka was an academic painter whose romantic imagery was used on a number of postcards.
Carl Strathmann 1866-1939
Strathman was a painter and illustrator who studied art in Dusseldorf and Weimar. He worked in an Art Nouveau style that was heavily influenced by the Symbolists. In 1891 he settled in Munich where he became a member of Allotric and the Cococello Club. He exhibited with both the Munich and Berlin secessions. A number of his paintings and gouache drawings were placed on postcards.
Leopold Otto Strutzel 1855-1930
Strutzel was an accomplished landscape painter who worked in a academic style. Many of his paintings were reproduced on postcards, but he also designed many chromolithographic postcards. These cards, often multi-viewed, are more impressionist in appearance due to their looser graphic style.
George Studdy 1878-1948
Studdy’s father had intended that his son have a career in the military but a bad foot injury from a pitchfork put an end to those hopes. Instead he found a job as a stockbroker while attending Heatherly’s Art School in London. Afterwards he concentrated his efforts on magazine and newspaper illustration, drawing everything from battlefield reports from the Boer War to comics. His work would appear in The Tatler, Comic Cuts, The Bystander, The Graphic, Illustrated London News, and Sketch magazine. By 1902 he was also Illustrating postcards for Valentine. By 1918 the Studdy Dog began to appear regularly and it quickly became his most popular comic character. His editor decided it had to have a real name and called the dog Bonzo. Studdy would become tired of this character and shifted his focus in 1929 to Ooloo, also known as the Studdy Cat. Bonzo however remained very popular and his image was licensed out for all sorts of products. Valentine published over 500 Bonzo comic postcards. The character continued to be drawn by others after Studdy’s death.