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R - ARTISTS
Louis Raemaekers 1869-1956
Raemaekers had primarily been a landscape painter when he started to work for the British War Propaganda Bureau in 1916. He produced many illustrations of the brutal German occupation of Belgium. While he personally visited the front lines, he admitted not to have actually seen the terrible atrocities he depicted. These images were issued in large postcard sets, and were also republished in France. It was reported that the Kaiser was so upset by these powerful pictures that he placed a bounty on Raemaekers’ head, but this story may have just been an effort in self promotion. After World War One ended he moved to southern France where he eventually produced anti-fascist cartoons but they were not as biting as his previous work. Ironically many of his ideas would later be transformed by the Nazis for there own anti-Jewish propaganda. In 1939 he moved to London but continued on to the United States in 1941 where he sat out the war years in Mamaroneck, NY. He would return to the Netherlands in 1953.
Fritz Reiss 1857-1915
After studying at the Dusseldorf Academy, Reiss began working largely as a landscape artist in painting and lithography. He was one of the Breisqauer Fives and participated in various art colonies. Though he lived and worked in a number of German cities, his work largely revolved around the scenery and peasants of the Black Forest. While some of his work is sentimental, most deals with the starkness of the landscape, which is enhanced by his application of broad flat fields of paint. Many of these painted images were used to illustrate postcards, but Reiss also produced more graphic looking chromolithographic cards.
Winold Reiss 1886-1953
Winold was the son of the academically trained landscape artist Fritz Reiss. He studied at the Academy and School of Applied Art in Munich. After emigrating to the United States in 1913, he took up residence in New York City and began doing graphic work and designing commercial interiors. He would become known for his Art Deco designs all across the country from The Crillon in New York to the Union Terminal in Cincinnati. He also designed the exterior of the Theater and Concert building at the 1939 NY Worlds Fair. Despite this success, Reiss held a fascination for American ethnic types, especially Native Americans. In 1920 he made trips to Mexico and Montana where he painted portraits on the Blackfoot Indian Reservation. On returning to New York he made illustrations for magazines such as Scribner’s, but more importantly the Survey Graphic who hired him to capture the important figures of the Harlem Renaissance. Reiss had great difficulty getting this work shown but the project, which ended in 1925 brought him much recognition and many more commissions. Two years latter, with the help of his brother Hans, he returned to Montana to paint eighty more portraits on behalf of the Great Northern Railway. These images were used on calendars and postcards for publicity. The trust Reiss had gained amongst the tribe from his first visit allowed him to create very intimate portraits of and ritual and dress. His popularity faded in the 1940’s as anti-German sentiment rose. After dying from a stroke he was cremated and his ashes scattered in the Blackfoot Reservation.
Leopold Resch 1877-1937
Resch was a painter whose watercolors were used to illustrate postcards.
Ferdinand Freiher von Reznzek 1868-1909
Reznzek had followed a family tradition becoming an officer in the cavalry before opening his own studio of industrial design in 1888. This painter and illustrator provided images for the magazines Jugend, Simplicissimus, and Fliegende Blatter in a somewhat expressive style. His work was sometimes risqué, and often satirized upper class life. Some of these illustrations, as well as reproductions of his paintings were also used on postcards. His older brother Emil Nikolaus von Reznzek was a well known composer.
Agnes Richardson 1885-1951
After her studies at the Lambeth School of Art, Richardson became an illustrator of children’s books, greetings, and postcards for many different publishers featuring images of children and animals rendered in watercolor. Starting in 1912, she also designed posters for the London subway for ten years. During World War Two she produced a set of comic military cards.
Georg Richter-Lossnitz 1891-1938
After attending the Dresden Academy between 1910 and 1913, Richter-Lossnitz worked primarily as a painter and an etcher. While his work is representational, over the years he developed a heavy brushy style in which his high contrasts combined with strong compositions create a more modernist feel. During the 1930’s many of his oils and watercolors were placed on monochrome and color postcards.
Arno von Riessen 1865-1910
Von Riessen was a very popular painter of his time, who worked in a classical academic style and often used antiquity as a source of inspiration. Not only were many of his images printed onto postcards, many of his paintings were turned into real photo art reproductions.
Gustave Riom 1839-1898
Riom was a graphic artist who worked in an Art Nouveau style. He is best known for his chromolithographic portfolio of eight floral designs, Estudes des Flerus, produced in the 1890’s. This set was also reproduced in postcard form.
Alexandre de Riquer 1856-1920
Riquer had begun studying art in France in 1869 but he ended up pursuing a career in engineering. He latter abandoned this choice to attend the School of fine Arts in Barcelona, and he would become a prolific painter, etcher, illustrator, and graphic designer. In addition to the posters and book plates for which he is best known, Riquer was a critic and poet who worked for many different magazines. In 1893 he became a founding member of the Societat Catalana de Bibliofils. His Art Nouveau style was heavily influenced by the Pre-Raphaelites and Arts and Craft movement that he experienced when visiting London in 1879 and again in 1894. Most of his postcards were made between 1898 and 1903, which seem to reproduce his poster and book cover designs.
Florence Vincent Robinson 1874-1937
Robinson began exhibiting her work at the Boston Art Club in 1893 against her family’s wishes that she not become an artist. The pull however was so great that she broke off relations with her family around so that she could move to Paris. There she studied watercolor with a number of well known painters. Her landscape and floral work was well received and exhibited including at the Paris Salon. Rafael Tuck commissioned her to do a series of watercolors depicting New York City that were used to create a set of chromolithographic private mailing cards. Robinson lived in New York City and Hanover, New Hampshire when she wasn’t painting in France, Italy, Spain, North Africa, or in Cuba. She was both a member of the Society of French Watercolor Painters and the American Watercolor Society.
Georges Antonine Rochegrosse 1859-1938
Though Rochegrosse studied historical painting in Paris and produced work along this line, he also produced a fair amount of decorative, Orientalist, and erotic work. By 1882 he was exhibiting with the Paris Salon. He worked for the newspapers La Vie Parissienne and L’Illustration, and also illustrated many books, opera posters, and between 1910 and 1914 he designed postcards, many for Job cigarettes. Rochegrosse spent his later years in Algeria but died shortly after returning to Paris.
Nikolai Roerich 1874-1947
Roerich was a man of many interests. He studied Law and Art simultaneously at St. Petersburg University and the Imperial Academy of Art. Afterwards he worked in archeology, theater design, and in producing religious artwork. He had strong interests in Theosophy and Buddhism and personally followed a mystic tradition. He joined Mir Iskusstva and served as president between 1920 and 1916. During the Russian Revolution he helped form the Arts Union to preserve Russia’s cultural treasures during troubled times but this endeavor was cut short by illness. Having moved to Karelia he found himself on the wrong side of the Finish Border in 1918 when the civil war broke out. He moved to London the following year where he founded the School of Agni Yoga, and then the year after that he moved to the United States to supervise a traveling exhibition of his work. While there he would come to settle down in New York City. Between 1925 and 1929 he went on an asian expedition, partially at least to create a Russian supervised cooperative Buddhist commonwealth. Having met with hostility in Tibet, he settled down in India where he established the Himalayan Research Institute. In 1934 he was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to head the Manchurian Expedition, but this was to be a more scientific endeavor. Roerich was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize three times because of his extensive work in helping to preserve cultural sites. He was also heavily responsible for the Roerich Act that attempts to preserve cultural sites through international law. During all this he continued to work as an artist, and many of his paintings were turned into postcards. He saw great importance in myth and tried to incorporate it within his work. While many of his images capture the more subtle spiritual side of mountainous landscapes, he also created work where his symbolism is much more upfront.
Carl Frederick Lobeck Rogind 1871-1933
After leaving the Academy in Copenhagen, Rogind began a career as an illustrator. At first he largely worked in advertising but soon he began contributing comics to humor magazines. Many of his images would also find there way into children’s books, and then onto postcards. Rogind created a number of cartoon strips.
Janis Rozentals 1866-1916
A painter and graphic artist who studied at the Academy of St. Petersburg. While he painted many portraits and landscapes, he was also attracted to themes of mythology and peasant life. Much of his work was influenced by the Symbolist and Art Nouveau movements. He provided many illustrations for magazines, posters, and postcards. One must be careful not to confuse art reproductions of his paintings with his much more highly stylized artist signed cards.
Friedrich Carl Georg Rumpf 1888-1949
Fritz Rumpf was a painter and a graphic designer of posters and postcards. He also designed glamour poster stamps for high end fashion houses.
Charles Marion Russell 1864-1926
As a child, Russell dreamt of being a cowboy, and at the age of sixteen he left home for Montana. There he worked in ranching for eleven years but it was his talent in drawing that got him noticed. By the 1890’s he had found enough patrons to become a full time artist. After marrying, he and his wife Nancy settled in Great Falls, Montana where he created over 2,000 narrative paintings and sculptures depicting Western themes. While his popularity was in great part due to Nancy’s endless efforts to publicize his work, he was was also one of the few Western artists to actually live among his subjects. Since 1888 he had been building close ties to the Blackfeet of Canada. The W.T. Ridgley Calendar Company used many of his images on their products, which included postcards.
Joseph Ruting 1909-1987
Ruting worked as an illustrator providing images for calendars, comics, and postcards. His first strip, De Adventuren van Daantje Kaan appeared in 1940. Between 1858 and 1976 he illustrated a number of childrenŐs books. Ruting had a particular interest in animals, and many of the continental sized lithographic postcards he published depicted birds.
Henry Ryland 1856-1924
After leaving the South Kensington Art School, Ryland attended Hatherley’s in London and the Academy Julian in Paris. While an accomplished oil painter, most of his output was in watercolor. He also created woodcuts and designed stained glass. His work was influenced by the Pre-Raphaelites and he often portrayed women in classical settings. In the 1880’s and 1890’s he created decorative graphics and illustrations for magazines such as English Illustrated. Some of his images of women were placed on postcards he designed and as reproductions of his paintings. Ryland exhibited extensively, which in 1890 included the London Royal Academy. He was also a member of the New Watercolour Society.