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M - ARTISTS
Alistair K. MacDonald 1880?-1947
The date of MacDonald’s birth remain uncertain, but by 1898 he is known to have begun producing a great deal of graphic art that included items for steamship lines, posters, and postcards. During the 1930’s he contributed many illustration to the magazine The Sketch. He worked in an Art Nouveau style that was often tinged with eroticism.
Josef Madlener 1881-1967
Madlener studied at the School of Applied Art and the Academy in Munich. He went on to paint, write poetry, and illustrate magazines and children’s Christmas books. He designed some Christmas cards early in his career and issued a six piece postcard set in 1935 reproducing earlier symbolist landscape paintings. There is a great deal of speculation that his image of a Mountain Spirit inspired J.R.R. Tolkien’s Grandorf character but the evidence is conflicting. Though Madlener can be considered a symbolist, his work also displays a heavy influence of German mythology and his personal religious beliefs.
Henriette Willebeek Le Mair 1890-1966
As a child Le Mair studied under the tutelage of the Parisian Maurice Boutet de Monrel. She illustrated her first book in 1904, and although she produced more children’s books in collaboration with her mother, her career as an illustrator really took off after leaving the Rotterdam Academy in 1911. Her watercolors, painted in a graphic style, were reproduced on many postcards. Le Mair held a strong interest in Sufism since a childhood visit to Arabia, and after marrying in 1920 she and her husband both converted. Though she continued to create illustrations after moving to The Hague, most of her activities became centered around her religious interests.
Elena Makowska-Luksch 1878-1967
Elena, whose father was a painter, studied at the Academy in St. Petersburg and them moved to Munich to attend the Academy there. In 1900 she married the sculptor Richard Luksch. She primarily worked as a designer of screens, boxes, panels, furniture, and metalwork. She also created illustrations for the magazine Ver Sacrum, and designed postcards for the Wiener Werkstätte. In 1908 she exhibited with the Vienna Secession.
Alfred Moritz Mailick 1869-1946
After studying at the Dresden Academy, Alfred began a long career as a painter and illustrator. As his work became more popular he changed his name in 1906 from Meilicke to Mailick. He would go on to design a large number of chromolithographic postcards, mostly as general greetings and holiday cards. Though much of his work revolved around themes of animals and hunting, he imbued all his work with a strong sense of the natural world. While this makes some of it feel almost pagan in character, he did produce numerous depictions of Christ out in the fields. The figures on his postcards seem to be taking part in a larger unspoken narrative rather than being the focus of attention. While there is a great simplicity to his somewhat academic style it is consistent and easily recognizable. During World War One he designed a number of military cards depicting German soldiers. His son Eric also had a career as a painter.
Gaston Marechaux 1872-1936?
Marechaux was a graphic artist who created work for advertising, children’s books, posters, prints, and postcards in a lively fanciful style. During the First World War he produced charity cards using children as subjects in a lighthearted yet bittersweet fashion.
Franz Marc 1880-1916
Franz was the son of Wilhelm Marc, a noted landscape painter. He spent five years studying theology in preparation for becoming a priest, but by 1900 he turned his attention to art and entered the Academy in Munich. His early work was influenced by the German Romantics as he already believed that art should provide an escape from materialism and address spiritual concerns. He traveled to Paris in 1903 and again in 1907 where he was exposed to modernist trends in art. Afterwards he began using animals in a symbolic manner in nearly all his paintings, woodcuts, and lithographs. Though his compositions became fractured due to the influence of Cubism and Futurism, they primarily drew on the bold expressiveness found in primitive art. In 1911 he and Vasily Kandinsky formed one of the foremost groups espousing Expressionism, Der Blaue Reiter, whose members were bound by ideology rather than style. In 1914 he finally managed to purchase a long desired country home in Ried, but within a matter of months he volunteered for the German Army when World War One began. He believed in redemption through suffering, and thought something profound may arise from this cataclysmic event. He was killed in 1916 during the battle of Verdun. Prior to the war in 1913 he began a long intimate correspondence with the poet Else Laskar-Schuler in the form of hand painted postcards. While these cards also depicted images of animals, they were set in the context of her poetic fantasies. After the war and desperate for money Lascar sold these postcards to the National Museum where they were put on exposition. Postcard reproductions of Marc’s other work followed until 1936, when the Nazi regime declared him a degenerate artist and began removing his work from museums. Today his work continues to be reproduced on postcards as he has become one of the most popular artists in Germany.
Helen Grace Culverwell Marsh-Lambert 1888-1981
Grace Marsh was a children's book illustrator and writer. Some of her titles include My Big Bedtime book, Story of Little Blackie, and The story of Teddy Bear. Many of her book illustrations were also used on postcards. In 1913 she married Charles T. Lambert and began publishing under a hyphenated name.
Alberto Giacomo Spiridione Martini 1876-1954
Martini received his initial training from his father who painted portraits and copies of old masters. He would become a painter, printmaker, and illustrator but in a far more original style. After his first inclusion at the Venice Biennalle, Martini moved to Munich where he contributed to the magazines Jugend and Dekorative Kunst. He would find additional work illustrating literary classics by the likes of Dante, Shakespeare, and Edgar Allan Poe. Though he produced Art Nouveau work, his symbolist style borrowed heavily from the mannerists and even older medieval traditions of the grotesque and macabre. This would be put to good use in designing a set of 54 propaganda postcards during World War One entitled Danza Macabra Europea. Martini had moved back to Italy in 1910 after his father’s death And settled in San Zeno with his mother. In 1923 he married the artist Maria Petringa and they would move to Milan. Feeling unappreciated in Italy, Martini spent most of his time between 1928 and 1934 in Paris where his work grew more surreal in appearance. In 1940 he started the satyrical journal Perseus.
Andre Eduard Marty 1882-1974
Marty’s studies at the Paris Academy was followed by a career as a graphic artist. He provided illustrations for postcards, books and magazines such as Comoedia Illustre, Harper’s Bazaar, House and Garden, Femina, Le Sourire, Vogue, Vanity Fair, and between 1912 and 1925 the pochoir fashion magazine La Gazette du Bon Ton. He is also known for his Ballet Russes posters designed in 1910, and those produced for the London subway between 1931 and 1933. As modernism’s influence on his work grew, he would develop an Art Deco style. During the 1930’s Marty became heavily involved with set and costume design for the ballet, theater, and films. In his later years he took up ceramic, enamel, and jewelry design.
Anton Marussig 1868-1925
Marrussig was a painter and illustrator who studied at the Munich Academy. After moving back to Graz he taught graphic design at the Technical University and National Art School. While primarily a portrait and landscape artist, he produced many fanciful images and watercolors for posters and Red Cross charitable postcards during the first World War.
Vitezslav Karel Masek 1856-1927
Masek moved to Prague in 1883 to study at the Academy, and then went on to the Munich Academy the following year. There he became a founding member of the art society Sketa. In 1887 he began two more years of study at the Academy Julian in Paris, where he came under the strong influenced of the French Symbolists and neo-Impressionist movement under Seurat. In 1894 he began to exhibit in Munich, and then in Dresden. He eventually returned to Prague where he briefly studied architecture, and would teach applied art. Many of MasekŐs images were placed on postcards in the New Czech Republic formed after World War One.
Domenico Mastroianni 1876-1962
From the skills Mastroianni learned when working as an apprentice in the ceramic and terra cotta workshops of Arpino, he began sculpting on his own in clay. His talent was recognized and he gained the patronage to travel to London. Berlin, Budapest, Paris, and Vienna to hone his art. By the time he opened a studio back to Arpino in 1913, he had become well known for his sculptures of various narrative subjects rendered in high relief. These pieces were usually photographed and then sold in the form of prints and postcards. The original work was then destroyed so the clay could be reused for the next piece. Most of these postcards were issued in black & white or monochromes, which came to be called sculptogravure. Some cards were also issued in color, sculptochromie, but these cards were colored by retouchers as the sculpture was not painted. Mastroianni produced over a thousand different images in this manner that have a look like no other. At the end of World War One he produced commemorative war sculpture that was cast in bronze. Sometime in the 1920’s he moved to Rome where he continued to work until his death. Though he was friends with many of the major artists of his day, he was never truly accepted into the world of fine arts.
Theo Matejko 1893-1946
Matejko was a prolific illustrator who produced many works for books and magazines primarily in charcoal. Many of his military illustrations wound up on postcards during the First World War. In 1919 he began working on film posters, and made a visit to the United States in 1928 on the Graf Zeppelin. American Gangsters inspired many of his illustrations in the 1930’s. Between 1921 and 1946 his most prevalent themes revolved around sports. By World War Two he was again producing military images as a war journalist for the army journal Die Wehrmacht. Matejko designed the last postage stamp for the Third Reich.
Michail Vladimirovic Matorin 1901-1976
Though Matorin studied painting at the Academy in Moscow, he is best known for his color woodcuts and wood engravings. While he designed some early postcards, much of his latter graphic work was reproduced on postcards. His style continued to change over the years from his early Art Nouveau work to that which was influenced by Western Modernist trends. As time went on his work grew more realistic but always retained some clear stylization.
Luciano Achille Mauzan 1883-1952
After studying painting at the Lyon Academy, Mauzan moved to Italy in 1905 where he began a career as an illustrator. Four years later he was designing posters for the film industry in Turin. Ricordi picked him up in 1912 and then he moved on to Magagnoli’s Magical press in 1919. By the 1920’s his style had been greatly influenced by Cubism and Art Deco. The success of his poster designs allowed him to set up his own publishing house in 1924, the Mauzan-Morzonty Agency in Milan. With this success behind him he moved to Argentina in 1926 to establish Affiches Mauzan, a second publishing house in Buenos Aires. Four years later he expanded his business by establishing a new poster department for the Cosmos advertising agency. He returned to Italy in 1932 to see his dying wife, and then moved to Paris the following year. Before returning exclusively to painting in 1939, Mauzan had designed over 2,000 posters, many of which were reproduced on at least 1,000 postcards.
Vladmir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky 1893-1930
After his father died, Mayakovsky’s family moved to Moscow in 1906. He helped support them by coloring wooden trinkets. He had been interested in social issues since a young boy, and now at the age of 14 he became a Bolshevik. His political activities would lead to a number of arrests, the first in 1908. That same year he attended the Stroganov School of Industrial Arts. By 1911 he would temporarily put politics aside so he could study at the Moscow Institute. A year later he and others unsatisfied with the slow pace of recognition for new forms of art wrote a manifesto, A Slap in the Face of Public Taste. He was expelled because of this and his general unwillingness to conform. This did not stop him from working in the graphic arts designing posters and postcards, but he put most of his effort into working as a poet and playwright. His style embraced the modernist trends taking shape in Russia at this time. In 1917 he traveled to Petrograd as the Bolsheviks stormed the Winter Palace and seized power. All his work was dedicated to exposing the evils of Capitalist Society and promoting reform. On a trip to the United States in 1925 he even walked the picket line at a garment workers strike. Mayakovsky committed suicide in 1930.
Hector Thomas Maybank Webb 1869-1929
He began his career as a full time artist in 1902 with the illustrations he provided for Punch magazine under the name Thomas Maybank. While he would continue to create watercolor and ink illustrations for children’s books, most notably Alice in Wonderland, he became best known for his oil paintings of fairies. Many of these paintings were exhibited in London’s Royal Academy. By World War one he was creating paintings and posters with military themes. In 1919 he began working on comic strips that featured Oojah the Elephant. Publishers such as C.W. Faulkner that used his illustrations in books also placed them on postcards.
Louis Mayer 1869-1969
Mayer was a painter, sculpture, and illustrator who primarily created portraits. After studying at the Wisconsin Art Institute he moved to Germany to attend the Weimar Art School and the Academy at Munich. He would also study at the Julian Academy in Paris before returning to America. In 1913 he set up a studio in Fishkill, New York. In addition to doing illustration work for magazines such as Puck, he created many glamour images for posters and postcards.
John Tinney McCutcheon 1870-1949
Though McCutcheon earned a degree in science from Purdue University in 1889, he found work as a illustrator for the Chicago Morning News in 1895. He sometimes worked as a correspondent covering both the Boer War in South Africa and the Spanish American War. In 1902 be began producing satirical political cartoons for the Chicago Tribune, a job he would hold until retirement in 1946. Though he continued to travel to cover stores such as the Paris peace conference in 1918, much of his imagery was grounded in the simple rural lifestyle he grew up in. This can be seen in his drawings for books and magazines such as Cosmopolitan, and in the many postcards he illustrated. In 1932 he won a Pulitzer Prize for his newspaper illustrations.
Alonzo Megargee III 1883-1960
As a child, Lon Megargee worked hard at staying out of school. In 1896, after his father was killed during a lovers quarrel while in Cuba, his mother disappeared and he found himself out of school for good. He headed west and found work on his uncle’s ranch near Phoenix, AZ, but he eventually ran away to become a cowboy. He purchased his own ranch in 1906 but after three years of draught he moved to Los Angeles to study at the School of Art and Design. He returned to Arizona where in 1913 he was commissioned to paint murals for the State House. In the 1920’s he headed east to further his studies in Philadelphia and New York. He would only stay in New York City for a year and a half, but while working there he designed the famous cowboy logo found in Stetson hats. He spent some time traveling to Spain, Paris, and Tahiti, but he returned to Arizona to design and build a new studio. From there he would go on to design prints and linen postcards with Western themes. Many of these are striking for their untypical rendering He died walking for help after driving his truck off a lonely road.
George McManus 1884-1954
After George’s teacher told his father that he was drawing in class instead of doing his school work, he took his son to The Republican, a local newspaper, and found him a job there. His cartoons proved popular and in 1904 he moved to work at the New York World, going on to the New York American in 1912. McManus is best remembered for Bringing Up Father, which ran between 1913 and 1954, but he drew other notable comic strips such as Alma & Oliver, Cheerful Charley, Panhandle Pete, and the Newlyweds. A number of his characters were placed on comic postcards and newspaper cards. His art career was temporarily interrupted by World War One when he served as an airman. In 1940 he semi-retired and moved to California.
Joyce Mercer 1896-1965
Mercer was a popular children’s book illustrator best known for her work on fairy tales for Mother Goose and Hans Christian Anderson. Her style is characterized by highly fractured images created through strong lyrical line work that fit into the Art Deco world of her day.
Oskar Merté 1872-1938
Merté’s father was a painter, and he took up the profession after attending the Academy in Munich between 1884 and 1891. As a painter and illustrator he focused on equestrian themes through which he found work with the weekly Flying Sheets and the German Cavalry Newspaper. After assisting Franz Roubaud Alexeyevich created the battle panorama of Sevastopol, Merté became more interested in military themes. While most postcards reproduce his renderings of horses and other animals, historic scenes depicting Prussian participation in the Napoleonic Wars can also be found. He would also paint contemporary battle scenes during World War One.
Giovanni Meschini 1888-1977
Meschini moved to Terni with his family as a child. After World War One he would set up the Ars Nova Studio that produced vast quantities of pochoir postcards. Most of his art Deco postcards dealt with romantic or glamour themes. In the late 1930’s he relocated his studio in Rome.
Leopoldo Metlikovitz 1868-1944
Metlikovitz was working as an apprentice in a lithography shop in 1892 when he was invited to join the Ricordi art publishing house in Milan. After a few years he became technical director and was designing posters and postcards for them. While his work displayed an Art Nouveau influence it was subordinate to his strong personal sense of dynamic composition. As his career progressed, Metlikovitz also created calendars and magazine illustrations as well as stage and costume design for the theater. While his graphic work was widely acclaimed, he concentrated on landscape and portrait painting after World War One.
Henri Meunier 1873-1922
The son of the engraver Jean-Baptiste Meunier, Henri became a fine printmaker in his own right. While he began to exhibit his prints after 1890, he was also an accomplished commercial artist drawing illustrations and magazine covers as well as producing many chromolithographic posters and postcards in the Art Nouveau style. Henri also produced images of the front lines during World War One. His postcard designs, mostly printed by Dietrich & Cie are often little more than a single portrait set against a flat colored background.
Hilda T. Miller 1876-1939
Miller was a children’s book illustrator contributing to works such as Days in Storyland. She is best known for her depictions of fairies and other fanciful creatures. The publisher C.W. Faulkner & Company placed many of her illustrations on postcards.
Maurice Milliere 1871-1946
Milliere attended the School of Fine Art in Le Havre before moving to Paris in 1889 to continue his studies. While he painted landscape and portraiture in a somewhat outdated impressionist style, he is better known for his graphic work, having taken up etching in 1907. He produced many illustrations for advertising, calendars, menus, and postcards. He often used a rather risqué redheaded woman in his work known as petite femme de Milliere, whose look was consistently updated with the style of the times. Many of these cards appear in sets.
Dimitri Isdorovich Mitrokhin 1883-1973
Mitrokhin studied at the Moscow School for Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture between 1902 and 1904, which was followed by studies in graphics at the Stroganov Industrial School. At the same time he became a member of the Murava Ceramists Association. In 1905 he left to study in Paris at the Academy Chaumiere. By 1910 he was back in St. Petersburg creating illustrations for books, magazines, and postcards. Though he often worked in a folksy style it was usually infused with symbolism. He became a member of Mir Iskusstva in 1916. Mitrokhin became heavily involved in wood engraving, lithography, and intaglio printing after 1923, which comprises some of his best known work. He produced a series of watercolors depicting the siege of Leningrad during World War Two but the fighting there forced him to move to Moscow in 1944. In 1969 he was recognized as an Honored Art Worker.
Otto Modersohn 1865-1943
Modersohn moved to Munster with his family in 1884, but soon after began studying at the Dusseldorf Academy. Unhappy there he continued his studies at the Karsruhe Academy in 1888. Still unhappy he co-founded the art colony at Werpswede in 1889 but left after only two years, though he would return periodically throughout his life. Primarily a plein air painter of small traditional landscapes, his work grew more expressive in both style and color after marrying the painter Paula Becker. After her death he moved to Fischerhude in 1908 but also traveled throughout Germany and France. In 1933 he moved to an even more rural environment in Bad Hindelang to get closer to nature, but three years later he became blind in one eye and was forced to work indoors. A number of his landscapes were placed on postcards. His son Christian also became a painter.
Evesy Evseevich Moiseenko 1916-1988
Moiseenko attended the Arts and Crafts Institute in Moscow between 1931 and 1935 followed by studies at the Repin Institute in Leningrad, which he completed in 1947. While he painted many portraits, he is best known for his heroic depictions of those who struggled though World War Two. Many of these images were placed on postcards in the postwar years. He also began a series of paintings depicting Alexander Pushkin in the 1980’s. In 1973 he became a Soviet Academic and later a People’s Artist of the U.S.S.R.
Margaret Monier 1887-1965
Margaret Monier, better known as Maggie, was a painter and illustrator. She designed a number of fashion and glamour postcards, which at times veered toward the risqué.
Fanny Moody 1861-1948
Moody was an animal painter, primarily depicting dogs in pastel and in watercolor. She was a member of the Society of Lady Artists, and exhibited at the Royal Academy in London. Many of her images were placed on tins and postcards, including holiday cards.
Carl Moos 1878-1959
Carl was the son of the Swiss painter Franz Moos. He studied commercial art in Munich, and found work as an illustrator for a number of local newspapers. In 1914 he became a founding member of die Sechs, formed to help promote the poster art of its six members. Moos however moved to Zurich, Switzerland the following year after the outbreak of World War One. He continued to design bold posters, but he also began to design postcards in a realistic but graphic style. Many of his early landscapes have been militarized by the subtle inclusion of soldiers.
Earl Steffa Moran 1893-1984
After studying at the Chicago Art institute, Moran began creating men’s fashion drawings for Sears & Roebuck. He went on to study at the Art Students League in New York but returned to Chicago in 1931 and set up his own studio. Within a year he secured an exclusive contract with Brown & Bigelow to illustrate their pin-up calendars. These strong bold pin-ups brought him much fame, which led to further illustrations for posters, arcade cards, and magazines including Beauty Parade, which he co-published. He moved to Hollywood in 1946 so he could more easily work with movie stars. It was there that the young Marilyn Monroe modeled for him over a stretch of four years. While most of his illustrations were rendered in pastel, Moran turned to producing finished oil paintings of nudes after moving to Las Vegas in 1955.
Koloman Moser 1868-1918
Moser had a very broad career as an architect, painter, graphic and industrial designer. He studied at the Vienna Academy and the Vienna School of Arts & Crafts, were he taught after 1900. He had friends in the Club of Seven and became one of the founders of the Vienna Secession in 1897. He along with Joseph Hoffmann founded the design studio, Wiener Werkstätte in 1903. Disagreements led him to leave the Secession in 1905 with the Klimpt group, and the Wiener Werkstätte in 1907. In 1902 he began to publish Die Qualle, which would become a very influential design source book for artists. His hand touched a wide variety of objects including postage stamps and postcards.
Zoe Mozet 1907-1993
Mozet was actually born Alice Adelaide Moser. As a child her family moved around quite a bit before settling in Scranton, Pennsylvania. It was there that she first studied art at the LaFrance Art School. By taking jobs as a model she was able to continue her studies at the Philadelphia Museum School of Industrial Art. After moving to New York in 1932 she began doing illustrative work for True Story magazine under the pseudonym Zoe Mozet. After additional studies at the Art Students League she found much more work illustrating pulp and glamour magazines. By 1937 she was designing ads, arcade cards, and provocative movie posters as well. It was after she began illustrating calendars for Brown & Bigelow in 1941 that she gained a reputation as a pin-up artist. She sometimes used herself as a model and her pin-ups tend to have a much more natural look to them than those produced by most of her male counterparts. Moser legally changed her name to Mozet in 1945. She retired to Arizona in 1978 but still continued to created some drawings.
Alphonse Marie Mucha 1860-1939
After being rejected by the Prague Academy, Mucha moved to Vienna and found work as an apprentice painting sets for the theater. When his best client, the Ring Theater burnt down he moved to Mikulov in 1881 supporting himself restoring portraits and painting murals. In 1885 he moved to Munich to attend the Academy there, followed by a move to Paris in 1887 where he attended the Academy Julian and then the Academy Colarassi. While there he briefly shared a studio with Paul Gaugin after his return from Tahiti. By 1894 Mucha was primarily working as a magazine illustrator but he also created many types of graphic art including postcards. These cards issued in an Art Nouveau style were largely re-designs of previous work done for posters, calendars, and menus. Mucha created these designs in black & white and it was the printer who added in color. At first this was carefully done under the supervision of the artist, but feeling exploited he took less care in their production over time. As the 19th century grew to a close, Mucha took part in the Vienna Secession and also published important style books such as Le Pater in 1899, but he also began to shed his highly stylized work in favor of more symbolic tendencies. His growing popularity allowed him to branch out into other fields such as designing stained glass and jewelry. Between 1904 and 1912 he traveled extensively to the United States, painting portraits and teaching in New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia. While in the States he met Charles R. Crane who agreed to finance Mucha’s lifelong ambition, the painting of the Slav Epic, a pictorial history of Slavonic culture. His interest in this project dated back to 1899 when he was commissioned to help create the Austrian Empire’s entry for the 1900 Paris Exposition. After returning to Prague he would spend the next sixteen years working on these twenty panels. He was somewhat distracted by designing postage stamps and money for the new Czech State in 1918. His dedication to Slav nationalism made him a target for the Gestapo after Germany invaded Czechoslovakia in 1939. He was quickly arrested and died soon after being released. Mucha’s Slav Epic appeared on old postcards as art reproductions, and most of his Art Nouveau designs continue to be reproduced on modern cards.