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K - ARTISTS
Leo Kainradl 1872-1943
Kainradl was a painter and graphic artist who studied at the Vienna Academy. He became a member of the Viennese Club of Seven. He contributed illustrations for instructive magazines to benefit poor children (kunsterziehungsbewgung) before moving to Munich in 1896. There he became editor of the magazine Fliegende Blatter where he remained until the outbreak of the First World War. Between 1895 and 1925 he began working for J.F. Schreiber illustrating children’s books. He also designed a series of Jungendstil postcards for them, and for Philipp & Kramer.
Gustav Kalhammer 1886-1919?
From 1905 to 1910, Kalhammer studied at the Vienna School of Applied Arts. While he produced paintings, most of his career was involved in the commercial arts as a jewelry, wallpaper, textile, interior, and graphic designer. His illustrations were used for ads and in magazines such as Jung Wien, and on numerous postcards for the Wiener Werkstätte. He fought in World War One and was presumed dead after being reported missing.
Friedrich Kallmorgen 1856-1924
Kallmorgan’s introduction to art came from the early training he received from his uncle, Theodor Kuchel. Formal instruction continued at the Academy in Dusseldorf, and after much traveling he completed his studies at the Karlsruhe Academy. Although he is primarily know for his impressionist paintings that cover everything from the rural landscape to the industrial port of Hamburg, he began producing graphic work in the 1890’s. First came the trading cards designed for the Stollwerck Chocolate Company, which were followed by postcards. Kallmorgan was married to the flower painter, Margarethe Hermuth.
Nicholai Konstantin Kalmakoff 1873-1955
Though his father was a Russian General, Kalmakoff grew up in Italy. There he began to study Art, but in 1903 he returned to his family’s home in St. Petersburg to study at the Imperial School of Law. After leaving he sought a career in the arts though painting and designing book covers, bookplates, and postcards. While he joined the religious sect Skoptzy that denunciated sexual activity, his paintings at this time are charged with eroticism. After joining the art movement Mir Iskousstva, Kalmakoff grew increasingly interested in the theater, eventually designing costumes and stage sets. In 1908 he created elaborate sexualized designs for Oscar Wilde’s Salome but they were considered too offensive by the Church and the show was shut down. This bankrupted his girlfriend, Vera Kommissarjevsky who was the leading actress and the show’s producer, and she died a year later. Kalmakoff would spend three more years making designs for the theater but he never lived down the scandal. He moved to Estonia in 1920 during the turbulence of the Russian Civil War. This was followed by a move to the French Riviera, but after killing his lover’s husband in a duel he fled northward, possibly to Brussels. By 1924 he had settled in Paris where he was further influenced by Symbolist and Decadent painters not to mention occult groups. While Kalmakoff’s work draws on various stylistic elements of his time, it is heavily imbued with his own unique personal explorations that often reveal a dark side of human nature. He had a major exhibition in 1928, which resulted in failure, and afterwards he grew increasingly reclusive and impoverished. He stopped painting in 1947 and died penniless. His work began to be rediscovered in the 1960’s.
Hans Kalmsteiner 1882-1914
Between 1900 and 1912, Kalvach studied various crafts at the Vienna School of Applied Arts. He spent much time traveling between Vienna and Trieste where his family lived. While he designed furniture and enamels, he primarily worked as a graphic artist in woodcut. He produced posters and illustrations for magazines such as Die Flache, Erdgeist, and The Studio, as well as postcards around 1907 for the Wiener Werkstätte. Kalvach had a good sense of humor and much of his output was laced with satire. In 1912 he was diagnosed with schizophrenia and spent the rest of his life in and out of clinics.
Rudolf Kalvach 1883-1932
Kalmsteiner’s interest in art was at least in part inspired by his father Johann who was a sculptor. Between 1898 and 1903 he studied at the School for Applied Arts in Vienna. While he taught after his graduation, he also painted murals and designed stained glass, porcelain, and posters. He did much graphic work, which included providing illustrations for Meggondorfer Blatter. In 1907 be began creating postcards for the Wiener Werkstätte. He served in the infantry in World War One and disappeared while fighting in Poland in 1914.
Friedrich Kaskeline 1863-1930
After attending the Vienna Academy, Kaskeline primarily worked as a satirical illustrator. His style was fairly conservative and shows the influence of Neoclassicism. He produced propaganda during World War One and created postcards in many different styles in the decade that followed. He is known for his many silhouettes.
Gottlieb Theodore Kempf von Hartenkampf 1871-1964
Kempf attended the Academy in Vienna between 1888 to 1896 supplemented by studies in Rome and Paris. He began his career as an illustrator producing work for the magazine Meggendorfer Blatter, and he was designing postcards by 1899. That same year he showed with the Vienna Secession. He was a member of the Siebener Club, Wiener Kunstlerhaus, and in 1903 he founded an artists group in Fahrafeld. Kempf was also a painter and etcher whose stye was influenced by both Art Nouveau and Symbolism.
Zula Kenyon 1873-1947
After leaving the Art Institute of Chicago, Kenyon began producing calendar illustrations for the Gerlach Barklow Company. She worked at this until 1918, which made her very well known. She primarily worked in pastels rendering portraits and sentimental subjects such as children and indian maidens. Kenyon eventually opened a studio in Waterloo, Wisconsin from where she produced illustrations for prints, and postcards.
Adalberta Kiesewetterf 1887-Unknown
Between 1905 and 1907 Kiessewetter was enrolled at the Hohenberger School, which was followed by studies at the Vienna School for Applied Art. Afterwards she worked as a painter and graphic artist. Her work appeared in the magazines Die Flache, The Studio, and Etiquettenshatz, and was used in various advertising campaigns. She also depicted views of Vienna on postcards for the Wiener Werkst&rauml;tte. She moved to Salzburg in 1917, but nothing is known of her after 1948.
Alanzo M. Kimball 1874-1924
Kimball was a painter and illustrator. He studied at the Academy Julian in Paris and was exhibiting in the Paris Salon by 1899. Soon after he left for New York City where he continued his studies at the Art Students League. He contributed many pastels for the covers of the Saturday Evening Post, and for the production of postcards. His style though competent was rather undistinguished.
Edward King 1863-1951
King was a London based painter and illustrator who worked with figures and landscape often with narrative overtones. The black & white cartoons he drew for Punch were later colored and issued as the postcard series Good Jokes from Punch by Raphael Tuck. Tuck published other sets by King such as Town Life and Firelight Effects.
Hamilton King 1871-1952
King worked as a painter, etcher, and illustrator. Many of his pastels were used in the Theater Magazine and Woman’s Home Companion. He also designed many ads, posters and postcards. His most notable set of cards depicts the Hamilton King Girls as bathers from various beaches around the country. Between 1920 and 1939 he had a home in East Hampton on Long Island from where he painted many landscapes.
Raphael Kirchner 1876-1917
After studying the Vienna Academy of fine arts in 1896, Kichner began his career as a portrait painter but was illustrating postcards as early as 1898. After moving to Paris in 1900 his commercial work became more dominant and he was designing magazine covers and within a year. Most of his postcards were produced in sets, which tend to differ widely stylistically but not in subject. They almost all depict women with his wife Nina, the Kirchner Girl, being the model for many of them. Though his depictions of women range from ordinary portraits to nudes, he gained the reputation of expressing them with a more erotic nuance than most. Some consider his designs as an early form of pin-up. While some cards contain a lot of Art Nouveau decorative elements, others tend to be more realistic. There is even a very popular series influenced by Japonisme. Since not all of his postcards are signed, his constantly changing stylistic elements can make it difficult to determine a genuine Kirchner, especially when other illustrators imitated his popular style. After the outbreak of World War One he moved to the United States where he continued to paint portraits and provide illustrations for Ziegfeld Folly posters and magazines such as Puck. He also designed postcards that were printed in New York and in London. It is believed that he produced over 1000 postcard images that were issued by many different publishers. Kirchner suffered an appendicitis attack while painting a portrait and died of complications just hours after his operation.
Catharina Klein 1861-1929
Klein moved to Berlin to study at a vocational school, and afterwards set up a school of her own to teach young women to paint. She became a prolific still life painter whose work was used in advertising, and on calendars and postcards. About 2,300 of her images were reproduced by 75 different publishers, most notably by Meissner & Buch who issued them in sets. Her earliest cards reproduced her oil paintings or sometimes just details from them. As time went on she created more work in watercolor and gouache, many specifically designed to meet the needs of postcard production. While most of her work revolved around depicting fruits and flowers she also created a set of floral alphabet cards that were later reissued on Hallmark greetings, and many images of birds that were commissioned by French and Swiss publishers. Her uncluttered compositions combined with an ability to portray the essence botanical detail made her work very popular.
Friedrich Erlich Kleinhempel 1874-1947
Erlich was an architect, landscape painter, and commercial artist who designed jewelry, textiles, rugs, wallpaper, and postcards. While most postcards signed Kleinhempel are attributed to him, it is difficult to make this claim with any certainty as his brother Fritz and sister Gertrud were also artists who worked in a very similar style.
Friedrich Wilhelm Kleukens 1878-1956
Kleukens had a career as a painter, graphic artist, and typographer. After studying in Berlin he moved to the free artist’s colony in Darmstadt. While he would come to teach in both Leipzig and Darmstadt, he is most noted for the graphic work he created at various workshops. He was a cofounder of the Steglitzer Werkstatt in 1900, where he worked for three years. By 1907 he joined his brother, Christian Heinrich Kleukens to form the Ernst-Ludwig Press. He created illustrations for the books they printed as well as illustrations for other children’s books. Kleukens is also known for his bookplates and postcard designs.
Heinrich Kley 1863-1945?
Kley’s early work in painting, etchings and murals was somewhat academic, though it did show influence of modern trends. Between 1888 and 1894 he exhibited landscapes and portraits with the Munich Secession. Around 1900 he began illustrating postcards for the publisher Ottmar Zieher. While his first postcards depict a more traditional landscape his interests began to shift toward more industrial scenes. Many of these chromolithographic cards printed by Ernest Nister were painted in free flowing washes. In 1908 Kley moved to Munich where he began producing black & white line drawings. Many of his satirical illustrations were included in the magazines Jugend and Simplicissmus. By the 1920’s he worked exclusively in commercial art. The date of his death is much in question.
Julius Klinger 1876-1942
After three years of study at the Vienna Museum of Applied Arts, he began working as an illustrator in 1895 for the magazine Wiener Mode. A year later he moved to Munich and found work with the magazines Meggendorfer Blatter and Jugend, but in 1897 he moved to Berlin. He was heavily engaged in commercial art, which included advertising postcards. Though he was influenced by the Art Nouveau and the Symbolist movement, he developed a more simple yet bold modernist style after he began designing posters in 1912. Many of these images were also reproduced on postcards. During World War One his output decreased but he did design posters and poster stamps. In the postwar years he concentrated on advertising campaigns and opened his own school of applied arts in 1923. He found it increasingly difficult to work as a Jew once the Nazis came to power, and he produced his last known poster in 1937. He was deported to Minsk in 1942 where he is believed to have been killed.
Max Klinger 1857-1920
After leaving the Art School in Karlsruhe, Kinger attended the Academy in Berlin. This was followed by further studies in Brussels and Munich. In 1879 he opened a studio in Berlin and concentrated on creating etchings, the most famous of which was the highly original series The Glove. In 1885 he opened another studio in Paris where his symbolist tendencies were reinforced, and he would work within this framework for the rest of his career. In 1888 he moved to Rome where classical elements began to enter his work. By 1892 he was exhibiting with both the Berlin and Vienna Secessions, and soon after he became a member of the Munich Academy. In 1893 he finally settled down in Leipzig and began teaching graphic art at the Academy in 1897. While he created paintings and prints, most of his work after 1897 was in multi-colored sculpture. By the 20th century Klinger had become a well respected and influential artist. He used his fortune in 1905 to establish Villa Romana in Florence, a colony for young emerging artists. While he created some original postcard designs, most cards were made to reproduced his etchings, paintings and sculpture.
Gustav Klucis 1895-1938
Klucis began his studies in Riga in 1912, and they would be continued in Moscow in 1918, but only after being drafted into the Army during World War One. He attended the avant-garde school of architecture Vkhutemas, and would teach color theory there for six years until it closed in 1930. In Moscow Klucis met the artist Valentina Kulagina and the two would marry and collaborate on many pieces. Klucis produced a wide variety of work including postcards, but is best known for his Constructivist photomontages that he pioneered starting in 1918. Though he joined the Communist Party soon after arriving in Moscow and produced much art promoting the ideals of the Revolution, he was directed toward producing pro-Stalinist work in 1935. In 1938 he was arrested and executed during one of Stalin’s purges.
Richard Knotel 1857-1914
Knotel’s father was an art teacher who provided him with some preliminary training in his youth. At an early age he was already contributing illustrations to newspapers and magazines as well designing postcards. In 1880 he entered the Berlin Academy to formalize his studies. Knotel became a huge collector of military books from which he drew inspiration for his own work. Not only did he paint historical narratives, he created a comprehensive set of illustrations depicting the history of military uniforms from 1600 up to the First World War. Many of these images were reproduced as chromolithographic postcards.
Ludwig Koch 1866-1934
Koch was a respected painter, sculptor, and illustrator of equestrian and historical scenes. Many of his oils and watercolors were used for postcards, including holiday cards. After World War one Koch moved to the United States where his work was not well received and he faded into obscurity.
Melanie-Leopoldina Koehler-Broman 1885-1960
Mela Koehler, as she is best known, studied at the school for embroidery and the School for Applied Arts in Vienna. She went on to become d designer of graphics, fabrics, and ceramics, as well as an illustrator of children’s books. She worked for the magazine Wiener Mode, and contributed to The Studio and Jung Wien. She produced about 150 fashion postcards most notably for Bruder Kohn and the Wiener Werkstätte. The backgrounds on some of these cards demonstrate her skill as a fabric designer. In 1934 she moved to Sweden.
Hans Kohlschein 1879-1948
Hohlschein began his studies at the Dusseldorf Academy in 1892. The paintings that followed were stylistically academic but painted in fairly loosely. Some of his works however exhibit a more nervous expressiveness that grew stronger over time. This can be seen more in his illustrative work that wound up on postcards. He served as a war artist in Belgium in the early part of World War One, but was transfered to Poland in 1915. During this time he made countless black & white drawings and about 300 paintings in tempera depicting life behind the front lines. In 1921 he obtained a teaching position at the Academy in Dusseldorf, and also found work painting murals in collaboration with Willy Reitz. By the 1930’s he concentrated on his landscape work. Though included in the Great German Art Exhibition in 1934, it would be the last time he showed for some of his more expressive pieces were being labeled as degenerate by 1937.
Oskar Kokoschka 1886-1980
When Kokoschka was a young child his family moved to Vienna. It was there that he established an interest for chemistry but ended up studying art at the Vienna School for Arts and Crafts after being recommended for a scholarship. Between 1907 and 1909 he produced posters and postcards for the Wiener Werkstätte whose flat designs show the influence of Japanese woodblock. As his work grew more expressive and more violent there was much critical backlash against him, and he was forced out of the workshop. His strong interest in bookmaking was quickly followed by his own writings of poetry and plays. They shared the same stylistic lack of structure as his paintings, which many did not understand. During World War One Kokoshka was badly wounded while fighting in Galicia, and it would take a few years for him to recover. In 1924 he settled in Munich but also began to extensively travel. Whether it was his highly expressive style or his leftist leanings, he caught the attention of Mussolini who fobid his continued entry into the Venice Biennial. In 1934 he was declared a degenerate artist by the Nazis and he fled to Prague. As Czechoslovakia approached the eve of war four years later, he fled to England and then to the United States. In 1947 Kokoshka took up permanent residence in Switzerland.
Käthe Kollwitz 1887-1945
Käthe Schmidt began to study art by 1884 in both Berlin and Munich. In 1891 she married Dr. Karl Kollwitz and settled down in Berlin. She had an affinity toward graphic work rather than painting, and she also felt that by pursuing this type of work that she could best balance her domestic life with her artistry. The lithographs, drawings, and posters of Kollwitz reflect her lifelong support of social and anti-war movements. She felt her work should not only have an effect on her times, but that it should be of lasting value to future generations. Between 1908 and 1911 she created many illustrations for the magazine Simplicissimus. After the death of her son in the first year of World War One her output decreased, but in 1916 Willy Roemer began publishing her work in postcard form, and through this medium she gained a large audience amongst the working class. In the post war years she became very active in progressive issues and often contributed work for posters to such groups as the Women'’s International League for Peace and Freedom. In 1928 Kpllwitz was appointed to a position in the Berlin academy but by 1933 she was forced to resign by the Nazis. Within three years she would be prohibited from exhibiting. In 1943 during the Second World War much of her work was destroyed in an air raid on Berlin.
Rudolf Konopa 1864-1938
In 1881 Konopa entered the Academy in Vienna, which was followed by studies in England, Italy, and France. In 1900 he became a founding member of the Hagenbund, and remained with the artist group until 1906. Around the time he left Paris and set up a studio in Vienna. He became a painter of portraits, still life, and especially landscapes. While his work displays Impressionist influence, it remained fairly conservative. He also produced graphic illustrative work, which included the design of postcards beginning in 1898. During the First World War, Kanopa worked as an official war artist for the Austrian Army.
Otto Kopp 1879-1947
Kopp was a painter and lithographer that approached traditional subject matter while embracing modern tendencies in art. He also designed a number of postcards in a highly graphic style.
Konstantin Korovin 1861-1939
As boys, Konstantin and his older brother Sergei both received training in the arts from their father. In 1875 Konstantin entered the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. He also briefly studied at the Imperial Academy in St. Petersburg but returned to Moscow a year later. There he got involved with the Abramtsevo artists and by the 1890’s with Mir Iskusstra. While these movements promoted Russian folk art over Western ideas, Korovin was greatly influenced by French Impressionism after visiting Paris in 1885. He would impart his personal style on these movements while painting landscapes in remote regions of Russia and Norway. After the turn of the 20th century he became increasingly involved in theatre design and became known for his unconventional use of color. This career was interrupted by World War One when he served as a camouflage artist. In 1923 he moved to Paris where all of his work was stolen on the eve of a major exhibition. This left him in destitution though he continued to find work designing stage sets for an international audience, and supplemented this work by creating illustrations for books and postcards. His son Alexey would also become an artist.
Lajos Kozma 1884-1948
Kozma moved to Budapest to study at the Imperial Joseph College, which he graduated from in 1906. After joining the Young Ones and the Wiener Werkstätte, he formed his own workshop Budapest Muhely in 1913. His goal was to provide a totally designed environment from furniture to architecture. Though his early work was based on Art Nouveau, his long interest in folk art took him to a new more modern level sometimes termed Kozmabaroque. As the Hungarian government grew more conservative, Kozma, a Jew lost his license to work in 1938. He was forced into hiding during the Second World War but regained his license and taught in the years that followed. Though his main interest was in designing buildings, he also provided graphics for postcards.
Ernst Kreidolf 1863-1956
Kreidolf spent most of his youth in Tagerwilen where he attended school. In 1879 he found work as an apprentice in a lithography shop but left to attend art school in Munich in 1883. By 1889 he had entered the Munich Academy. Though he became a noted painter and illustrator, he began his career by drawing portraits of criminals for posting in newspapers. In 1898 he illustrated Flower Fairy Tales, the first of his 25 children’s books. He also wrote some of these stories and was heavily involved in the design of the books. Kreidolf graphic work depicted an intimate fantasy world of insects and flowers whose style was influenced by the work of Walter Crane. These book illustrations were also used on many postcards. While best known for his graphic work, Kreidolf was also an accomplished painter whose symbolist leanings led to dark mysterious compositions of crowded cityscapes and desolate landscapes. In 1917 he left Munich for Switzerland and settled down in Berne.
Carl Krenek 1880-1948
After leaving the Imperial Royal Textile Industry College in 1898, Krenek enrolled in the Vienna School of Applied Arts. He put his studies aside in 1906 to travel to Germany and Paris but entered the Vienna Academy the following year. Krenek primarily worked as a small scale landscape painter, and was exhibiting from 1904 onwards. His textiles and graphic work for posters, children’s books, and postcards was highly stylized. He produced fifteen cards for the Wiener Werkstätte.
Heinrich Krenes 1874-1913
Krenes worked as a painter, cartoonist, and graphic artist that included the design of postcards. Many of his subjects included still lives and nudes.
Aleksandrovich Petr Krivonogov 1910-1967
Krivonogov studied at the Institute of Applied and Decorative Arts in Leningrad between 1932 and 1938. A year after graduation he moved to Moscow and became a member of the Grekov Studio of Battle Painters. While he began painting military subjects in 1939, he would soon experience combat first hand when World War Two erupted. He continued to paint large narrative paintings of battle scenes in the postwar years, and was considered a master of the Social Realist style. For this he was made an Honored Artist Worker of the USSR in 1955. His paintings depicting WWII scenes were reproduced on postcards only after the war was over. Their monumental size combined with poor printing does not do these pieces justice.
Otto Kubel 1868-1951
After his studies at the Munich Academy, Kubel became a painter, watercolorist, and illustrator in a fairly academic style. He is noted for his many illustrations of fairy tales by the Brothers Grimm, of which many were turned into postcards. Some of these cards are in the form of silhouettes.
Franz Bernhard Kuhn 1889-1952
Kuhn studied architecture and design at the Vienna School of Applied arts between 1910 and 1916. After his service in World War One he primarily worked as an interior and furniture designer, though he did collaborate on some building designs. He also designed some textiles and postcards for the Wiener Werkstätte. Religious symbolism can sometimes be found in his highly stylized work. His sister Dina was a graphic artist and ceramist.
Mikhail Vasilovich Kupriyanov 1903-1992
After graduating from the art school in Tashkent, Kupriyanov attended the art technical Institute in Moscow between 1921 and 1929. His first work was as a satyrical cartoonist, which he promoted from 1924 onwards as a member of the Kukryniksy Trio. He later became engaged in landscape painting in a style influenced by Impressionism. He produced a number of worn torn scenes of World War Two followed by cityscapes of western Europe. Kupriyanov was an award winning member of the Academy of Arts. Many of his paintings were placed on postcards.
Ernst Kutzer 1880-1965
Kutzer moved to Vienna in 1899 to begin studies at the Streblow School before moving on to the Academy of Applied Arts. By 1910 he was working as a childrenŐs book illustrator. During World War One he became a military artist and also began to design postcards. In the postwar years he partnered with the writer Adolf Gets to illustrate his children’s books and produce postcards from these images. With little demand for illustrations during World War Two, he resorted to making pictures for schoolbooks, but this official connection to the Nazi regime caused his work to be banned when the war ended. In 1948 Kutzer was once again allowed to work and he illustrate many more children’s books. His son Friedrich also became a painter.