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H - ARTISTS
Elsa Hammar-Moeschlin 1879-1950
From at least 1911, Hammar was writing and illustrating children’s books. She also produced many postcards in her simple graphic style. She spent much of her time at the village of Akero, a gathering place for artists.
Walter Sigmund Hampel 1868-1949
Walter was the son of the glass painter William H. Hampel. He studied at the National school of trade and the Vienna Academy but was expelled for his anti-conservative views. He went on to become a painter and graphic designer exhibiting with the Club of Seven, Hagenbund, and the Vienna Secession. While Hampel associated himself with with progressive art, his own style was more academic than expressive even though influences by the Symbolists. Most of the postcards he designed seem to have been produced between 1898 and 1901.
Knut Hansen 1876-1926
After attending the Academies at Copenhagen and Munich, Hansen became a well known painter and illustrator. He contributed to the magazines Jugend and Lustige Blaetter. Both his paintings and graphics on postcards display an energy influenced by the modern trends of his day.
Eugen Hartung 1897-1973
Hartung had a varied career in the arts working as a painter, muralist, set designer, graphic designer, and illustrator. He is well known for his drawings of anthropomorphised cats, and sometimes other animals situated in both common and raucous situations. These cards were first printed in high quality lithography by Max K¨nzli in Switzerland where they became known as the K¨nzli Cats. After Alfred Mainzer in New York acquired the rights to the series, he eventually began printing them as halftones in Belgium, and they became better known as the Mainzer Cats. While they lost their Alpine flavor, they continued to retain their high quality until printing wa shifted to a number of other countries around the world./font>
Robert von Haug 1857-1922
Von Haug was a painter, printmaker, and illustrator who also taught at the Stuttgart Academy. A good deal of his imagery tended to deal with equestrian and narrative themes. While he painted in a somewhat brushy manner he still maintained a fairly academic style. A number of his images were used for postcards.
Karl Hayd 1882-1945
While Karl Hayd painted still lives, cityscapes and rural scenes in a rather brushy style, he also produced a great deal of prints and commercial graphic work for posters and postcards. He became a war artist during World War One serving with the Austro-Hungarian army in Galicia, the Dolomites, and the Trentino. There is a carry over in the way he captured ordinary working people to the manner in which he portrayed the lives of ordinary soldiers; though some of his images border on the macabre. Many of these images were placed on postcards. He returned to painting military subjects during World War Two.
Hilda Hechle 1886-1939
Hechle studied at St. John’s Wood Art School before attending the Royal Academy in London. Afterwards she set up her studio in St. JohnÕs Wood where she worked as a painter and illustrator, and began exhibiting around 1902. She created many fanciful images, including book illustrations for The Earthly Paradise. These images are in stark contrast to her more realistic watercolor landscapes. Hechle belonged to the Ladies’ Alpine Club and was an avid climber in Wales and in the Alps. She is noted for her dramatic but non-romanticized alpine views sketched on the spot while climbing. Hechle was also a member of the Royal Society of British Artists.
Josef Hegenbarth 1884-1962
Hegenbarth moved to Dresden on 1905 and attended the Academy there between 1908 and 1915. Afterwards he began exhibiting and illustrating numerous classic novels and fairy tales. Much of his work was centered around circus life. In 1924 he began creating illustrations for the magazine Jugend, and a year later, Simplicssimus. After World War Two he provided illustrations for 34 different magazines.
Ernst Heigenmooser 1893-1963
Between 1910 and 1912 Heigenmooser studied at the School of Arts and Crafts in Munich. He produced illustrations for magazines such as Der Orchideengarten as well designing book plates posters and postcards in a very personal lyrical style.
Franz Hein 1863-1927
This painter. illustrator, and tapestry designer set up his studio in Karlsruhe, though he spent time at the artist colony at Grotzingen during the 1890’s. A number of chromolithograph reproductions were made of his paintings, and he also designed postcards in a romantic Art Nouveau graphic style.
Thomas Theodor Heine 1867-1948
Heine’s irreverence for authority would come to shape his life. His unkindly caricatures of his teachers got him thrown out of school as a child, but by 1884 this talent allowed him to attend the Dusseldorf Academy. After additional studies in Munich he began to supplement his painting with graphic work, and by the 1890’s he was working at illustrating books and magazines. He made illustrations for Die Fliegender Blatter and in 1895 he became a cofounder of the satirical magazine Simplicissimus, which he also heavily contributed to. His graphic work was done in an Art Nouveau style but with a heavy decadent expressiveness. By 1898 his satirical drawings of the Monarchy landed him in prison. In the early 20th century, his drawing began to be used on posters and postcards as well, mostly published by Simplicissmus. He also began exhibiting with the Berlin Secession. In the years following the First World War he turned more of his attention to painting. After the Nazis came to power, he fled to Prague in 1933, and then Oslo in 1938, finally settling down in Stockholm in 1942. While his early paintings showed an Impressionist influence, we know too little about his later work as most of it was destroyed in bombing raids during World War Two.
Edwin Hermann Richard Henel 1883-1953
Between 1908 and 1910 Henel attended the Breslau Academy. He set up a studio in Munich and became known for his paintings and graphic designs that appeared on posters, poster stamps, and postcards. He was fond of aerial themes, and produced work for air shows.
Oscar Herrfurth 1862-1934
Herrfurth studied in Weimar and later at the Hamburg Academy. He became primarily known for his orientalist themes in painting. He applied these same interests to his book illustrations for The Adventures of Baron von Munchausen, which were also reproduced on postcards.
Heinrich Heusser 1896-1943
Pola had been home to an important Austrian naval base on the Adriatic, which seems to have inspired the the young Heinrich, better known as Harry to become a marine artist. He was comfortable working in various mediums. Many of his images of naval ships and battle scenes, often with dramatic lighting effects were placed on charity postcards during World War One.
Paul Hey 1867-1952
While Hey studied at the Munich Academy, much of his education came during his extensive travels ranging from Egypt to England. Settling down in Gauting, he became a painter, etcher, and illustrator working in a fairly academic style. Between 1900 and 1910 he illustrated postcards for Ottmar Zieher. Many of these cards emphasized their crayon texture giving them a more graphic look than most of his work. Many of his more romantic paintings of landscapes and fables were reproduced on cards, including those with patriotic and military themes issued during the First World War. In the post war years Hey illustrated cigarette cards for Reemtsma.
Sepp Hilz 1906-1967
Sepp’s father George Hilz was a well known painter of churches. After studying at the school for apprentice painters in Rosenheim, Sepp would join his father as an apprentice in restoring old churches. Between 1921 and 1927 he studied at the Academy in Munich where he honed his skills as a portrait painter. He briefly set up a studio in Munich but within a year he returned to Bad Aibling to work with his father once more. By 1930 he seems to have found his style in painting the people and landscapes of rural Bavaria, and he became known as Bauermaler (Painter of Peasants). While there was nothing overtly political about this work, its idealization of simple rural life in a highly academic style fit in nicely with the classical aesthetics of the rising National Socialist movement, and Hilz became one of the most popular artists to show at the Great German Art Exhibitions. Many of these paintings were placed on postcards. Adolph Hitler not only purchased his work, he built a new studio for him in 1939. After World War Two Hilz championed the cause of free expression by all artists at a time when the work of those who prospered under the Nazis was banned. His popularity in the prewar years would come to guarantee his obscurity in postwar Europe. Much of his work was destroyed or confiscated during the American occupation.
Le’on Hingre 1868-1915?
Hingre primarily worked as a figurative sculpture and painter. During the First World War many of his military illustrations were used on postcards. While these primarily depicted studies of men in uniform, he also captured more dramatic battle scenes.
Anton Hlavacek 1842-1926
Early in his life, Hlavacek worked as a house painter, making and selling small paintings on the side. He went on to study technical drawing and then between 1854 and 1864 painting at the Academy in Vienna. Over the next to years he spent time in Worms and Cologne before returning to Vienna to teach. While he painted portraits and monumental scenes of Vienna, it is his paintings and watercolors of the Alps that were mostly reproduced on postcards. Not all these cards were traditional mountain views, he also produced a series depicting hikers at remote Alpine Huts.
Anton Hoffmann 1863-1938
After serving nine years in the Bavarian army, Hoffmann entered the Munich Academy in 1889. He became a painter and illustrator of military themes who contributed to many books and magazines. His style was painterly yet traditional, which lent itself to his subject. Many postcards reproduce his paintings and graphic work in depictions of historical scenes and the German Army on maneuvers. Many postcards with his imagery were issued during the First World War, including large sets in monotone rotogravure.
Rudolf Alfred Hoger 1877-1930
Hoger was primarily a painter of sentimental subjects from his studio in Vienna. A number of his images were used to illustrate postcards.
Ludwig Hohlwein 1874-1949
Hohlwien worked as an architect after his studies in Munich but became interested in graphic design in 1898. After further studies in Paris and London, he returned to Munich in 1906 where he became known for his poster designs at the Munich workshops. He also created book covers and illustrations for the magazines Meggendorfer Blatter and Das Plakat, and began producing advertising cards by 1908. As his career picked up he moved to Berlin in 1911. During the First World War he designed propaganda and Red Cross posters, some of which were turned into charity cards. He created his best work in the postwar years incorporating very bold designs into his work. While he embraced modernist trends that were disliked by the Nazis, he became a Party member in 1931. Afterwards the Olympic Game and Nazi propaganda posters that he designed often expressed more neoclassical elements. A number of his poster designs were also placed on postcards.
Adolpho Hohenstein 1854-1928
Hohonstein moved to Vienna as a young man to become a painter and illustrator, but he also spent much time traveling across India. By 1879 he found himself working in Milan as a set and costume designer. This work brought him to the attention of Ricordi in 1889, who he would design posters and postcards for, and eventually become there art director. While he is known for his work in Art Nouveau, he created graphic work in a variety of styles. In 1906 he moved to Bonn, but spent much time in Dusseldorf as well. After World War One he primarily painted on buildings.
Thorolf Holmboe 1866-1935
After Holmboe’s family moved to Tromso, his father opened a gallery and began tutoring his young son in watercolor. Holmboe eventually began studying marine painting and attended the Academy in Berlin in 1886. He moved to Paris in 1889 where he continued to study painting for two years. Rather than focus on cultural themes, which were popular in Norway at the time, his work primarily focused on the natural beauty of the rugged northern coast where he grew up. While his work won acclaim in Norway, it was not well received abroad and he was forced to take up commercial work that included book illustration and designing enameled pieces for David Andersen. Many of his marine scenes were published as chromolithographic postcards. His brother Othar was also an illustrator.
Adalbert Holzer 1881-1966
Holzer worked as a landscape painter and illustrator. His work appeared in the magazine Jugend and on many postcards.
Charles de Lille Homualk 1909-1996
Homualk illustrated a number of postcards with his black & white and color wash drawings. While he produced comic cards, nearly all his work was dedicated to capturing his native Breton culture and way of life.
Emil Hoppe 1876-1957
As the grandson of the architect Anton Hoppe, Emil went on to study architecture at the Vienna Academy followed by a year in Italy after graduating in 1901. The following year he began working for his former professor, Otto Wagner, alongside fellow architects Marcel Kammerer and Otto Schenthal. By 1910 these three went into partnership to set up their own firm. Kammerer retired in 1918 and the partnership dissolved in 1938 when Hoppe was forced into exile by the Nazis. He returned to Vienna in 1945, largely restoring buildings damaged during World War Two. In addition to his architectural work, Hoppe had a long career in industrial design producing everything from lamps to postcards for the Wiener Werkstätte.
Bruno Horoux 1868-1944
Horoux attended the Leipzig Academy followed by many trips across Germany. He lived in Paris during the first decade of the 20th century and showed in the Salon. He eventually returned to Leipzig and became a professor at the Leipzig Academy following the First World War. Though Horoux painted portraits and landscapes, he also produced many Symbolist influenced etchings and lithographs, sometimes erotic that were used on bookplates and postcards. Perhaps his best known cards are reproductions of wood engravings that capture the monumental statuary within the memorial to the Battle of the Nations.
Sergius Josef Hruby 1869-1943
After having studied at the Vienna School of Applied arts and the Vienna Academy, Hruby gave up his academic style in 1899 to adopt Art Nouveau, which he applied to his painting, design and graphic work that included postcards and holiday cards. His paintings were also reproduced on cards. He would change styles again around 1910 when his work became heavily influenced by symbolism. Although Symbolist work was already going out of vogue, Hruby would cling to the style for the rest of his life. At the outbreak of World War One, his early military training allowed him to rise to First Lieutenant but he was mustered out by 1915 due to poor health. He would return to the Army in 1917 where he worked as an official war artist until the end of the conflict. Between 1925 and 1933, his satirical illustrations found a home in the magazine Die Muskete. While he became a member of the Wiener Kunsterhaus in 1922, he was expunged in 1941 because his wife was not of Aryan descent.
Emil Huber 1883-1943
Huber was a painter and graphic artist who designed posters and postcards. During World War One he illustrated a large set of military postcards depicting the Swiss armed forces in a very original and highly stylized fashion.
Alice Ercle Hunt 1848-1930
Hunt used her talents to illustrate a number of children’s books and postcards. She is best known for her illustrations placed in The Romance of the Christmas Card.
Lillian Woolsey Hunter 1874-1926
Hunter was an illustrator who primarily painted woman&rsdquo;s portraits with watercolor in a loose brushy style. Some of these portraits, commonly referred to as Belles, made there way onto prints and postcards. Hunter also briefly drew a comic strip in 1914 entitled Don & Dot in Opera Glass Land.