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D - ARTISTS
Hans Dahl 1849-1937
Dahl served in the military until 1874 followed by studies at the Academies in Karlsruhe and Dusseldorf. He began exhibiting his work in 1876. In 1888 he set up a studio in Berlin but continued to spend his summers in Norway. Most of his work revolved around the dramatic Norwegian landscape rendered in a romantic manner. When populated, his figures are usually seen clad in traditional national attire.
Arup Das 1924-2004
Arup Das was primarily a figure painter and muralist, trained at the Government College of Arts and Crafts in Calcutta. He moved to Delhi in the late 1950’s and joined the Council of All India Arts and Crafts in 1960. In 1972 he traveled to England for further studies. Das sought to capture the emotion of the moment in his figurative compositions, which was complimented with modernist abstract trends. His work was internationally exhibited and placed on many postcards.
Harendra Navayan Das 1921-1993
After some studies at European Academies, Das attended the Government College of Arts and Crafts in Kalkata until 1938. He did some work as a muralist, but he was most adept at many forms of printmaking, especially woodcutting. Though his style was influenced by Japanese woodblocks he became renown for his idealistic portrayals of rural life in India. Many of these images were used on postcards. His son Chandan also became an artist.
Lucy Dawson 1875-1954
Working under the pseudonym Mac, Dawson created images of dogs in drawings and drypoints, but primarily in pastels. Many of these were turned into postcards by Valentine & Sons, playing cards by Waddington in the 1930’s, and cigarette cards for Will’s in the 1940’s. Many of the postcards have personal narratives written by Dawson on their backs. After her husband died she moved to London in the 1930’s, but moved out to Hertfordshire during the Second World War to escape the bombing.
Jan Dedina 1870-1955
Dedina was a painter and Illustrator whose painterly images of women often appear on postcards.
Alexander Aleksandrovich Deineka 1899-1969
Deineka entered the Karkov Art College in 1915, and worked as a photographer on his return to Kursk. He quickly got caught up in revolutionary activities and fought with the Bolsheviks to defend the town during the Russian Civil War. At that time he ran an art studio for the Political Department but was sent to Moscow in 1920 to study at Vhutemas. He began exhibiting his work in 1924, and though influenced by modernist trends, especially through photomontage, he was more conservative in nature. In 1925 he helped to found the Society of Easel painters (OST) that followed a more Social Realist path. He left this group in 1928 and became a co-founder of the group October. By 1931 he was a member of the Russian Association of Proletarian Artists. In addition to his monumental narrative paintings he created book illustrations, and starting in 1938 mosaics for the university and subway in Moscow as well as for the Kremlin. During World War Two, Deineka created a number of heroic paintings that would later be widely distributed in postcard form.
Franz Karl Delavilla 1884-1967
Delavilla studied at the School of Applied Arts in Vienna continuing in Magdeburg in 1907 and Hamburg in 1909. Afterwards he worked as an illustrator and printmaker producing design work for the theater and graphic designs for the Cabaret Fledermaus. He also designed postcards for the Wiener Werkstätte. Delavilla began teaching graphic design in Frankfurt in 1913, and in 1919 he would exhibit with the Dresden Secession. He was known for his bold designs.
Albert Delstanche 1870-1942
Delstanche was a book illustrator primarily known for his series on Flemish legends. He also illustrated postcards including charity cards of woodcuts produced during World War One.
William Wallace Denslow 1856-1915
Though Denslow moved to New York City to study at the National Academy of Design and at Cooper Union, he spent much of the 1880’s traveling across the country as a newspaper reporter and artist. After visiting Chicago he decided to settle down there creating posters, cover designs, and bookplates. He would also try his hand at comics drawing the innovative strip, Billy Bounce. His big break came in 1900 when he collaborated with L. Frank Baum on The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, but this partnership disintegrated only two years later after bickering over the stage production. Denslow’s problems with alcohol hurt is career and he spent his final years just getting by from designing postcards and ads.
Fortunato Depero 1892-1960
Rejected by the Vienna academy, Depero went to work as a marble cutterÕs apprentice until he was inspired by the writings of the Futurists. He moved to Rome in 1914 to study with them and there he met Giacomo Balla. Together they would write the manifesto Futurist Reconstruction of the Universe. While many such statements were just hyperbole for public consumption Depero would come to have real influence over the world of design. With many of the leading Futurists having been killed during the First World War, which they so ardently supported, Depero moved to Rovereto in 1919 to open Casa d’Arte Futurista where their concepts would be adapted to the applied arts. He represented the Italian Futurists at the 1925 Internationale in Paris. Between 1928 and 1930 he lived in New York City designing costumes and interiors as well as providing illustrations for The New Yorker, Vougue, and Vanity Fair. While there he also founded the magazine Dinamo. After returning to Italy he continued to paint and do graphic work producing a number of advertising cards. Following World War Two he moved back to New York and then to New Milford in Connecticut in 1947. Futurism’s long standing efforts to glorify Fascism however had tainted his work and he returned to Roverteto in 1949.
Michael Zeno Diemer 1867-1939
Diemer began his career in Munich as a painter who eventually became well known for his marine scenes. By 1894 he began to concentrate on producing large panoramic pieces. The cyclorama in Innsbruck, Austria depicting the Tyrollean battle of Bergisel is a surviving example of his extraordinary efforts. He also produced many watercolors that were used for chromolithographic posters and an extensive number of fine postcards by the publisher Ottmar Zieher. Though his paintings were executed in a realistic academic style, a Romantic influence still shows through. He typically painted historic subjects but he was not shy of tackling the modern world for new inventions such as Zeppelins were included in some of his pieces. This comes through in a set of monochrome cards he illustrated depicting areal combat in World War One. Diemer also worked as a musician and composer.
Rudolph Dirks 1877-1968
Dirks’ father, a wood carver, moved his family to Chicago in 1884. Dirks would move to New York City in 1894 where he provided illustrations for Judge and later Life magazines. In 1897 he began working at the Journal American where he drew the comic strip The Katzenjammer Kids. Many of these images would be placed on cutout postcards, especially in the form of heat applied cards, where the application of a hot iron would reveal a previously hidden image that completed the comic narrative. In 1911 a dispute led Dirks to leave for The World newspaper but this initiated a long legal battle that would non conclude for three years. The Journal American was awarded the right to continue running The Katzenjammer Kids, now drawn by Harold H. Knerr. Dirks continued the strip for The World under a new name, The Captain and the Kids. Dirks’ son John often worked as an assistant to his father, and in 1958 he took over the strip and continued illustrating it until 1979. Dirks’ older brother Gus was also a cartoonist.
Josef von Diveky 1887-1951
After studying at the Vienna Academy in 1906, Diveky made a career as an etcher, illustrator and graphic designer. In 1910 his work took him to Brussels and Zurich, but in 1914 he returned to Vienna to exhibit with the Secession. He would also produce work for the Cabaret Fledermaus, Wiener Werkstätte, and various magazines including Der Ruff, Die Muskete, Figaro, and Donauland. Many of his postcards demonstrate an uncomfortable nervousness. He produced charity and propaganda cards during the First World War, and designed a Hungarian postage stamp in 1916. Diveky moved to Switzerland in 1919 but would move to Budapest in 1941 to take up a professorship at the School for Applied Arts.
Jean-Gabriel Domerque 1889-1962
Domerque, who studied at the National School of Fine Arts was already exhibiting in the Salon by 1906. He had made his reputation as a landscape painter but after World War One he made a dramatic shift toward painting portraits and figures of slender young actresses in a rather personal and loose style. These images came to be known as the Parisian Ladies, many of which were pin-ups, and were placed on postcards. He moved to southern France in 1927 where he returned to the landscape in his designs for travel posters. In 1955 Domerque became the curator at the Jacquemart-Andre Museum, where he worked until his death.
Violet Grace Gebbie-Drayton 1877-1936
Violet’s father, George Gebbie was a lithographer and fine art publisher, who helped inspire her to become a painter and illustrator. In 1909 she married Theodore Wiederseim, an advertising executive at Cambell’s Soup Company who used her Funny Baby characters to create the Cambell’s Kids. The marriage didn’t last and in 1911 she married W. Heyward Drayton. From then on she would sign her work as Grace G. Drayton. In addition to illustration, she designed paper dolls and postcards. She also drew many comic series such as Bobby Blake and Dolly Drake, The Terrible Tales of Captain Kiddo, Toddles and Pussy Pumpkins, Dottie Dimple, and The Pussycat Princess. She often collaborated on work with her sister Margaret G. Hays who was also an artist.
Marcello Dudovich 1878-1962
After his studies at the Royal School in Trieste and the Munich Academy, Marcello took up lithography in the shop of his father, Antonio Dudovich, who was a well known poster artist. In 1897 he moved to Milan to work for Ricordi as a colorist but his talent quickly secured him a job as a designer. Within a year he had opened a printshop in partnership with some fellow designers. Between 1899 and 1905 he worked creating posters for Edmundo Chappuis in Bologna but eventually returned to Milan after some extensive traveling. In addition to posters, for which he became internationally acclaimed he produced other types of graphic work from postage stamps to postcards, and contributed illustrations to the magazines Italia Ride, Fantsio, and Simplicissmus. Dudovich’s work was strongly influenced by the Vienna Secession and later by modern expressive trends in German art. These connections brought him trouble when Italy joined the fighting in World War One; he was considered a German sympathizer and kept under surveillance. After the war his poster work was even more popular and he began doing work for the film industry. His production waned during the 1930’s when he was no longer in tune with the values encouraged by the Fascist regime in power. He produced his last significant work around 1950. About 150 of his designs were placed on postcards.
Frederick Alexander Duncan 1881-?
Duncan moved to New York City to study at the Art Students League, and he would set up his studio there. He became a painter, sculptor, and illustrator of glamour images for postcards and magazine covers.
Emile Dupuis 1866-1944
Dupuis primarily worked as an illustrator and is best known for his poster designs, many created in an Art Nouveau Style. During the First World War he produced images for postcards that were issued in five series of 12 cards each: Nos Poilus depicting French soldiers at the front, Nos Allies of the French allies, Leurs Caboches depicting the enemy soldiers of France, Les Neutres consisting of several satirical cards mocking the stance of the neutral countries, and Les Femmes Heroiques depicting women of the allied countries. Dupuis was murdered by the Germans during World War Two while helping the wounded in the liberation of Paris.
Clare V. Dwiggins 1874-1958
Dwiggins, better known simply as Dwigg started his career drawing for an architectural firm. In 1897 he drew his first comic strip featuring Ophelia Bumbs for the St. Louis Dispatch. This character would appear in many different incarnations including Ophelia and Her Slate for the New York World in 1909. His most popular comic strip was School Days, which ran between 1910 and 1932. Dwigg also produced many images for book illustrations and postcards. His cards were first produced by Raphael Tuck but he would eventually work with many postcard publishers. After retirement he painted watercolor landscapes.