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C - ARTISTS
Gaspar Camps 1874-1942
Camps studied art abroad in Cuba and France, and then primarily worked as an illustrator out of Paris and Barcelona. Though his early Art Nouveau style earned him the nickname Mucha Catalan, his later work shows signs of Art Deco influence. He also created graphic works including the design of postcards.
Ella Mary du Cane 1874-1940
Lady du Cane’s two daughters, Florence and Ella, grew up in a manor surrounded by extensive gardens near Malden, England. Though they moved to London, their family’s wealth allowed them to travel all over the world, and their childhood estate gave them an appreciation for gardens. Florence would pen three books based on their travels that were illustrated with fairly academic watercolors painted by her younger sister Ella. Flowers and Gardens of Japan was released in 1908, Flowers and Gardens of Madeira in 1909, and The Canary Islands in 1911. Ella also illustrated Italian Lakes and Banks of the Nile. These books were published by A. & C. Black who also turned many of their illustrations into postcards.
Raffaele Carloforti 1853-1901
Carloforti was a noted impressionist painter who had a personal interest in architecture. In the 1890’s he designed a number of postcards printed in chromolithography that cary his cityscapes.
Pierre Carrier-Belleuse 1851-1933
Pierre was the son of the artist Albert Ernest Carrier. He changed his name in 1868 to Carrier-Belleuse. In addition to the tutelage of his father, he continued his studies in Paris, and was exhibiting with the Salon by 1875. In the 1890’s he became president of the International Society of Painting and Sculpture. While he worked as a landscape painter, he is better known for his pastel work, especially of the ballet. Many of these images were placed on postcards. During World War One he was one of the primary artists who worked on the giant panorama, Pantheon de la Guerre.
Frank Carson 1881-1968
Carson studied at the Massachusetts Normal Art School and the Fenway Art School before moving to New York City to study at the Art Students League. Afterwards he primarily worked as a marine and landscape painter, but he also created a high volume of graphic works that included the design of postcards. While his roots seem to be in Impressionism, he slowly developed a more modernist style with bolder colors similar to that of the French Fauves. Though much of his work was centered on New England in such places as Boothbay Harbor, Cape Ann and Cape Cod, he also worked out in California and Bermuda. Carson exhibited extensively and was a member of numerous art associations including the Copley Society, the Provincetown Art Association, and the Boston Art Club. He also worked as a teacher, writer, and critic.
Gurtrud Caspari 1873-1948
After her fatherŐs death in 1888, Caspari moved to Dresden with her family. There she taught at an art school until 1897 when she contracted Graves decease. While bedridden she made the decision to begin illustrating children’s books, and her first, The Living Toys was published in 1903. She would go on to write and illustrate about fifty more children’s books and song books as well as design games, calendars, and postcards. In 1906 she began collaborating on illustrations with her brother Walter who was primarily a political cartoonist for magazines. This relationship lasted until his death in 1913. Afterwards she moved to Buhlau Klotzache where she continued her illustrative work, which by now had become very popular. Her crisp hard edged figures tended to be placed against softer and sometimes monochromatic backgrounds that often depicted the Saxon landscape; and this came to be known as the Caspari Style. Once the Nazis came to power, she found work illustrating school books for the new regime. After World War Two she was labeled a collaborator and could no longer find work. She returned to Dresden where she died in poverty after taking a bad fall.
Hendrick Cassiers 1858-1944
While born in Antwerp Hendrick, better known as Henri, moved to Brussels as a young child. After leaving the Antwerp Academy, Cassiers began his career in architecture where he spent years creating structural renditions, but after seven years he turned to painting and etching. After perfecting his brushy watercolor technique he traveled through Europe spending but spent most of his time in Holland. It was there that he picked up most of the themes he used in his work. He produced a wide variety of graphic art including posters, calendars, and illustrations for popular magazines. Many of these pictures were on the spot coverage of newsworthy events. Cassiers is well noted for his posters made for the Red Star Line after 1898, which were later reproduced as postcards. Most of his chromolithographic postcards were issued through two publishers; painterly landscapes and city scenes in watercolor by Dietrich & Cie, and a more graphic Art Nouveau influenced series by De Rycker & Mendel. While his paintings are somewhat impressionist, Cassiers’ graphic work did not adhere to a specific style. Some of it however shows a strong Art Nouveau influence and all of it is very distinct. He served as president of the Royal Belgian Society of Watercolorists.
Leon Cauvy 1874-1933
Cauvy worked in a number of mediums throughout his life such as painting, printmaking, and the design of furniture, fabrics, and graphic. He began exhibiting with the Salon de Paris in 1901 and the Salon des Artistes Francais in 1906. He moved to Algeria after being offered a place at the state run artist colony, Abd el Tiff, eventually becoming its director. He also taught at the School of Fine Art in Algiers. Cauvy’s early work, which included his postcards, displayed a distinct Art Nouveau style; but after moving to North Africa he became an Orientalist. He used this later style on posters, many created for the PLM Railway.
Sofia Chiostri 1898-1945
Sofia was the daughter of the well known illustrator Carlo Chiostri. She became an educator at the Educandato of the Announced in Florence and an illustrator in her own right after the First World War. She designed many highly stylized glamour postcards that were issued in sets. Her work was highly influenced by modernist decorative trends we now refer to as Art Deco. All of her postcards were printed in Italy.
Hans Christiansen 1866-1945
In 1881 Christiansen began his career in the arts as an apprentice decorative painter, a position he would hold on and off for many years. In the late 1880’s he studied painting in Hamburg and Munich. By 1893 he was designing view-cards of Hamburg, which would be followed by a variety of postcards. Besides his graphic work for postcards and illustrations for the magazine Jugend, he became interested in various forms of applied art and began designing stained glass, ceramics, jewelry, textiles, carpets, and furniture. He joined Volkskunst-Verein in an attempt to move the production of applied art closer to the principals of the Arts and Crafts Movement. His own work however was heavily influenced by the Nablis painters and Japonism leading to a strong, and what would become influential, Art Nouveau style. Christiensen moved to Paris in 1895 and attended the Academy Julian between 1899 and 1902. In these same years he moved back and forth from Paris to the art colony in Darmstadt. By 1911 Christiansen had stopped his traveling and settled down in Weisbaden. Within three years he gave up all work but painting. After World War One he took up portraiture but in 1933 he was declared a degenerate artist by the Nazis and banned from painting, but he still managed to work on textile designs.
Frederick Earl Christy 1883-1961
Christy had his first College Girl postcard published in 1905 with the finical help of his father before he graduated from the Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts. Working as a commercial artist he contributed many illustrations to magazines, including The Saturday Evening Post, Ladies’ Home Journal, Photoplay, and a wide variety of other products. While most of his subjects were women, he is best known for his early work that revolved around Ivy League college themes. His postcards would be produced by a variety of publishers.
Howard Chandler Christy 1873-1952
Christy came to New York from rural Ohio in 1890 to study art but he couldn’t afford to finish school. He did however have a chance to study with the painter William Merritt Chase. In 1895 he began providing illustrations for magazines, eventually becoming a correspondent in Cuba during the Spanish American War for Scribner’s and Leslie’s Weekly. By 1905 he was a regular contributor to books, calendars, and other magazines such as Century, Harpers, Collier’s, Cosmopolitan, and McClures. Christy became best known for his painterly portrayals of the independent American woman, which came known as the Christy’s Girl. They began to appear on postcards in 1906. Nancy May Palmer, who modeled for many of these pictures, became his second wife in 1919. When the United States entered the First World War, Christy produced a number of outstanding patriotic posters to encourage enlistment and the purchase of war bonds. In the post-war years he concentrated on portrait painting but painted some important historical narratives in the 1940’s.
Johannes Vincenz Cissarz 1873-1942
After his studies at the Dresden Academy between 1891 and 1896, Cissarz worked as a muralist but soon took up graphic design. He provided illustrations for books, posters, and in 1897 postcards. While influenced by Art Nouveau his stye was not consistent as he also drew inspiration from more conventional design traditions. He soon expanded into applied arts designing furniture, wallpaper, and even typefaces. By 1899 he was participating heavily on the Dresden workshops and exhibited with the Vienna Secession. In 1903 he joined the art colony in Darmstadt. Cissarz moved to Stuttgart in 1906, but finally settled down in Frankfurt in 1916 where he also taught.
Mikalojus Konstantinas Ciurlionis 1875-1911
By the time Ciurlionis’ family moved to Druskininkai in 1878 he was already showing signs of becoming a musical prodigy. He would go on to formally study music and he became an important composer. Just after the turn of the 20th century he took up painting as a pastime, but unhappy with the conservative ideas around him he left to study at the Warsaw School of Fine Art in 1904. It was about this time that Ciurlionis began creating handmade postcards in tempera, watercolor, pastel, graphite, and ink that he mailed to his family. The known cards now lay within the collections of museums. After returning to Lithuania he took part in the first exhibition of Lithuanian art in Vilnius in 1907, and soon afterwards became a founding member of the Lithuanian Union of Arts. Though most of his paintings were heavily influenced by Symbolism tinged with abstract design, they go so far in many ways to be a precursor of Surrealism. Ciurlionis died of pneumonia while hospitalized for depression. After his death, many of his works were reproduced on postcards in both Lithuania and the Soviet Union.
Ellen Hattie Clapsaddle 1865-1934
After receiving a scholarship in 1882, Clapsaddle moved to New York City to attend the Cooper Institute (Cooper Union). After returning home she used her skills teaching art, painting portraits, and decorating a variety of objects, which she sold from her own studio. After her father died in 1891, she and her mother were forced to move in with her aunt in Richfield Springs where she continued to do freelance artwork illustrating calendars, paper fans, and trade cards. While a number of publishers used her work on postcards, she submitted the greatest number of her designs to the International Art Publishing Company. She moved to New York City in 1895 to work with them, and like so many other artists she made a number of trips back and forth to Germany in order to work directly with the best printing houses. This arrangement was necessary as protective labor laws prevented German printers from working in the United States. International Art Publishing was a subsidiary of Wolf & Co.; and because of the popularity of her work there, Clapsaddle was hired by the Wolf bothers as a full time illustrator in 1906. She dedicated her life to this work producing over 3,000 postcards, mostly greetings and holiday cards depicting children. Although she returned from Germany in 1915 during the World War One, she briefly went back to work there in 1921. She continued to design postcards for Wolf Advertising at least into the mid-1920’s though demand was no longer what it had been.
The traditional narrative is that Clapsaddle was trapped in Germany in 1914 and the Wolf Brothers found in a hysterical, destitute state living out in the streets of Berlin. After returning her to America in 1919 with her health ruined she eventually died penniless and was initially buried in a potters field. This account of events is totally false, but the question remains of where it came from. The tremendous anti-German resentment created by the propaganda campaigns of the Great War still remained strong in the postwar years. Could this story be part an an effort to protect the market for her postcards by replacing any concerns over German collaboration with a more sympathetic narrative?
John Cecil Clay 1875-1930
Clay studied at the Arts Student League in Washington, DC before moving to New York City in the 1890Ős. There he found work drawing portraits of actors, actresses, and other notables for local newspapers. By 1902 he made his first of many illustrations for Life magazine, and later he supplied work for Harper’s, Century, Good Housekeeping, and the Saturday Evening Post. This was followed by work as a book illustrator, which included two titles he authored, In love’s Garden and The Lover’s Mother Goose. The Rotograph Company published his drawings from In Love’s Garden as a postcard set, and both the Detroit Publishing Company and P.F. Volland reproduced some of his magazine illustrations. After his divorce in 1915 he moved to Mamaroneck, NY but maintained a studio in Gramacy Park. He retired sometime in the 1920’s after suffering a stroke.
Irene Mabel Neighbor Cloke 1905-1995
This self-taught artist was better known simply as Rene Cloke. After moving to London she produced a great many illustrations for postcards, greeting cards and books that include such children’s classics as Alice in Wonderland, The Wind in the Willows, Little Women. The Secret Garden, and Grimm’s and Anderson’s fairy tales. Many of these were issued through the Radiant Way that provided inexpensive books to the working class. Likewise most of her cards were published through the Medici Society or through Salmon and Valentines. Many of her images focused on fairies or anthropomorphic animals. Cloke took a break from illustrating during the Second World War to work on maps for the British War Office.
Suzanne Marie Marguerite Cocq 1894-1979
Cocq was a painter, printmaker, and illustrator who studied at the Brussels Academy. Some of her illustrations were used on postcards. Cocq married the woodcut artist Maurice Brocas in 1919.
Ferdinand Coenraets 1860-1939
Coenraets was a watercolor painter and illustrator. He mainly concentrated on landscapes that showed high attention to atmospheric effects. This romantic quality carries over on to the postcards he designed despite their more graphic look.
William Haskell Coffin 1877-1941
After leaving the Corcoran School of Art, Coffin continued his studies in Paris. Afterwards he moved to New York City where he began his career as a portrait and figure painter. He also found work illustrating calendars, postcards, advertising cards, and covers for magazines such as the Saturday Evening Post. During the Second World War he also produced propaganda posters. Under strain from unabated financial problems, Coffin committed suicide in 1941.
Gisbert Combaz 1869-1941
Combaz studied art at the Royal Academy in Brussels after a brief career as a lawyer. After 1895 he devoted much of his life to teaching, but he also became an accomplished painter, printmaker, sculpture, illustrator, and designer of fabrics, carpets, wallpaper, and ceramics. Between 1897 and 1914 he regularly exhibited with the Libre Esthetique. While his paintings displayed some neoimpressionist influence, his graphic style was more clearly Art Nouveau. Combaz was also a scholar of Far Eastern art, and this no doubt influenced the bold outlines, stylized patterning, and unusually cropped compositions found in his work. He began designing for postcard publishers in 1897 followed by the magazines Jugend and Simplicissimus. His last postcards seem to be the three sets he made for Dietrich & Cie. in 1899.
Edward Theodore Comton 1849-1921
While Comton briefly studied at the London Royal Academy, He moved with his family to Darmstadt, Germany in 1867 to pursue a cheaper education. After marrying in 1872 he moved to Feldafing in the Carinthian Alps. He became an accomplished climber and was a member of the Alpine Club. These experiences led him to specialize in mountain painting in the English Romantic tradition, but his style drifted toward realism as the years went by. He is noted for his ability to capture dramatic atmospheric effects. His interest in climbing took him to mountain ranges throughout Europe, North Africa, and the Columbian Andes; all of which he painted. He also produced illustrations for the Austrian Alpine Association, and turned many of his watercolors into postcards. In 1880 Comton became a member of the Royal Academy in London, but his strong English connections would hurt his career in Germany. Comton’s three children would also become painters; Marion, a still life artist, and Edward Harrison and Dora both mountain painters.
Tito Corbella 1885-1966
After earning a degree in chemistry at the University of Padua, Corbella changed course and entered the Academy of Fine Arts in Venice. Afterwards he became an illustrator and worked for such notable companies as Ricordi. After 1912 he concentrated more on painting portraits of women and of lovers, of which about 300 were reproduced on postcards. Despite his notoriety of rendering glamorous women, he also produced propaganda cards during World War One. His best known set was published by Inter-Art in 1917, depicting the very mythic death of Nurse Edith Cavell at the hands of the Germans.
Amleto Della Costa 1929-
Costa is a painter, sculptor and designer who largely produces posters and prints in silkscreen that are then reproduced on postcards. He borrows heavily from the glamour art deco tradition.
Hilda Gertrude Cowhan 1873-1964
After her studies at the Royal College of Art, Cowhan began providing illustrations to the magazines Punch, The Sketch, and The Graphic. By 1910 she was illustrating children’s books such as Fiddle Sticks, Curly Heads and Long Legs, and A Polar Bear’s Tale. Through these stories she popularized an impish bushy headed character that became known as the Cowhan Child. Many of these illustrations were also placed on postcards. Between 1924 and 1935 she found work with Shelley Potteries Ltd. designing ceramic dishes and tea sets for children. She was married to the artist Edgar Lander.
Marie Cramer 1887-1977
At the age of nine Marie Cramer, already called Rie, moved to the Netherlands from the Dutch East Indies. After her father retired in 1904 she moved with her family to The Hague, where she began studying at the academy the following year. In 1903 she began an intense career as a writer, fashion designer and illustrator. After setting up a studio near the publisher W. de Haan in Utrecht in 1906, she soon had her first children’s book published and went on to illustrated many classics during the years of the First World War. By 1916 many of these illustrations from children’s books began being placed on postcards until they reached about 200 in number. While much of her work was drawn in ink and then watercolored, Cramer began experimenting with various forms of printmaking during the 1920’s. Around 1924 she became a contributor to the children’s magazine Zonneschijn, as her style began to change. Though often occupied by domestic themes, her illustrations were now rendered in more highly stylized graphics often dominated by compositional geometries that would become her trademark. In 1954 Cramer moved to the Mediterranean island of Majorca where here style changed once more. She returned to the Netherlands in 1971 due to health concerns.
Walter Crane 1845-1915
Walter’s father, Thomas Crane was a well known portrait painter. In 1857 Walter began his career in the arts as an apprentice in a wood engraving shop. He would go on to become one of the most influential illustrators of his day, and many of these images would be placed on postcards. He furthered the garden motif in children’s books, and introduced the toy book that was dominated by pictures rather than text. Crane also contributed much to the decorative arts, especially more naturalistic designs for textiles and wallpaper after meeting William Morris in 1874. He would write two influential books, The Basis of Design in 1898 and Line and Form in 1900. While literary works provided the themes for much of his early work, Crane would come to infuse his personal beliefs into his work through metaphor. His style was greatly influenced by the Pre-Raphaelites and the Arts and Crafts movement. The concept of art for the masses led him to become very active in progressive causes supporting anarchists and contributing illustrations to socialist publications and posters. His work was widely exhibited throughout Europe and America, and he held a number of important posts in art and educational institutions.
Henry H. Cross 1837-1918
Cross was a restless spirit; he ran away from home twice to join the circus before traveling to Paris at the age of sixteen to study painting. Upon returning to the United States, he headed west with the P.T. Barnham Circus. By 1860 he had opened a studio in Chicago but was soon off to Minnesota after the Sioux uprising broke out. He would join the circus once more but largely lived as a frontiersman. In 1893 Cross married and moved to Valparaiso, IN, where his brother Ferdinand worked as sculptor. This was followed by a move back to Chicago after 1900. By now he had become a well known painter of the American West, and he received many commissions to paint the horses of rich men. A commission by T.B. Walker of Minneapolis to paint Western themes took up the last ten years of his life. His ability to speak Sioux gave him a unique access to many native Americans whose portraits he painted. Many of these in turn were made into a finely printed set of postcards by Arthur Jaffe. His work was widely used to illustrate magazines after his death, and many of these images were later put on postcards as reproductions.
Edward Cucuel 1875-1954
Cucuel’s interest in art began early, and he entered the San Francisco School of Design in 1889 at the age of fourteen. He found work as an illustrator for local newspapers, but in 1892 he left for Paris. There he studied at the Academy Julian, the Academy Colarossi, and the Paris Academy. He returned to the United States in 1896 and worked as a newspaper illustrator in New York but only for about six months. Once he earned enough money he returned to Paris where he dedicated himself to painting. He mostly painted romanticized images of women of leisure in landscape; and though he painted nudes, many of his clothed figures carry sexual overtones. In 1898 he traveled to Italy followed by a move to Berlin where he once again found some work illustrating newspapers. In 1907 he settled in Munich where he became a member of the art group Scholle, and also exhibited with the Munich Secession. While there, his impressionist style began to be influenced by expressionism. By 1928 Cucuel had settled into a routine of summering on the shores of Lake Ammersee and wintering in New York City. In 1939 the looming war forced him to leave Germany, and he settled down in Pasadena, California. Though Cucuel did not design postcards, his paintings were reproduced on numerous German cards.
Carl Otto Czeschka 1878-1960
Though his humble background first led him to study carpentry, Czeschka went on to study painting at the Vienna Academy. He took part in the 1900 Vienna Secession and joined the Wiener Werkstätte in 1905. Though he left two years later to teach at the Kustgewerbeschule in Hamburg, he continued to contribute to the workshop until 1915. Czeschka was a prolific and diverse designer of textiles, stained glass, furniture, jewelry, toys and flatware. Not only did he provide graphic work for the Fledermaus cabaret in Vienna. he did graphic designs of all sorts including prints, posters, calendars, book designs, fonts and postcards. His postcards were printed in thematic sets from 1899 until his military set in 1915. They all exhibit a strong sense of design.