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B - ARTISTS
Melly M. Bachrich 1899-?
Bachrich was primarily a graphic artist. While best known for his etched bookplates influenced by Symbolism, he also produced glamour postcards.
Heribert Bahndorf 1877-1947?
After leaving the Berlin Academy in 1898, Bahndorf began his career as a landscape painter and illustrator. Many of his watercolors were placed on postcards, often combined with strong graphics.
Maruyama Banka 1867-1942
In 1984 Banka moved to Tokyo in order to study western painting. He became a watercolorcolorist but also produced scrolls in a more traditional ink wash style. Though the outward style of his paintings are clearly western they have the Eastern tendency to incorporate compositional elements that function to create essential qualities of a place rather than a direct representation. Banka used watercolor to design a number of lithographic postcards.
Sybil Barham 1877-1950
After leaving the Herkomer Art School in Southampton at the turn of the century, Barham begun her career as an illustrator. She provided images for many children’s books that were subsequently placed on postcards by C.W. Faulkner. She had a very consistent style that combined a stark painterliness with graphic expression yielding moody yet playful imagery.
William Henry Barribal 1873-1956
After spending his youth in Worcester, Barribal moved to London with his family where he eventually found work as an apprentice in a lithography shop. After spending a year at the Academy Julien in Paris he returned to London and began his career as a painter and illustrator. Barribal’s work appeared on postcards, playing cards, calendars and posters largely for the London North East Railway between the two world wars. He also illustrated covers for magazines such as Vogue. He modeled his glamour images after his wife, who became known as the Barribal Girl. His later work was more experimental but it was not as popular, and he retired from commercial art around 1938.
Arpad Basch 1873-1949
After his interest in metallurgy waned, Basch went on to study art in Budapest, Munich, and Paris. After returning to Hungry in 1896 he eventually became part of the art colony at Szazados. While he painted landscapes his primary career was as a graphic artists producing illustrations for ads, posters, books and magazines. He also designed early Gruss aus view-cards and postcards of women in a more Art Nouveau influenced style. By World War One most of his work revolved around military themes, and he illustrated a large set of monochrome charity cards depicting battle scenes.
Rudolf Baschant 1887-1995
Baschant was a printmaker who studied in Essen, Frankfurt, Weimar, and Leipzig. He became a student of Walter Gropius and later taught with him at the Bauhaus. In 1923 he designed posters for the Bauhaus, which were also turned into postcards. Baschant’s real obsession was his work as an amateur botanist. He collected plants from all over the world and placed them in his large herbarium. During World War Two he was forced to move to Dassau and later Berlin. In 1945 he settled down in Linz.
Alfred Theodor Joseph Bastien 1873-1955
Bastien was primarily a landscape artist who studied at the Royal Beaux-Arts Academies in Ghent and Brussels. He was continuing his education in Paris when war broke out in 1914. After fleeing to England he joined the Belgian Army and was deployed to the Yser front. In 1917 he was attached to the Canadian Army as a war artist and he made many illustrations for Illustrated War News. Afterwards Bastien taught until 1945 while working on a number of large panoramas, most notably Battle de l’Yser based on his wartime sketches. It opened in Ostend in 1926 but was badly damaged by bombing and exposure to the elements during the Second World War. Another of his murals painted in 1937 that depicted the massacre of civilians during the Great War was deliberately destroyed during the German occupation of Belgium. He created many military illustrations for postcards during the First World War, and details from his war panoramas were reproduced on cards in later years.
Marjorie Christine Bates 1882-1962
After moving with her family to Wilford, Bates attended the Nottingham School of Art. She continued her studies in Paris and afterwards her pastels and watercolors were exhibited at the Royal Academy in London and the Paris Salon. Her family fortune allowed her to travel extensively and she spent much time in southern France and Rhodesia. During the First World War Bates served as a nurse in Malta. Much of her work after the war was done in a combination of pencil and pastel, which was used for illustrating posters, books, and periodicals such as Homes and Gardens and The Gentleman’s Magazine. In 1928 the British Art Company began creating postcards sets carrying her imagery. Most of these cards displayed landscapes or buildings drawn in a rather conservative style; though she did produce a set of Shakespearian characters based on her oil paintings. She stopped illustrating cards at the outbreak of World War Two when her relationship with British Art ended. She did however later produce a hosiery advertising card set based on Tudor themes to mark the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.
Carl Ludwig Friedrich Becker 1820-1900
Becker received much of his art training while studying abroad in Paris, Rome, and Venice. He became a academic painter of mostly narrative subjects. In the 1890’s he made illustrations of uniforms and other military themes using line and wash, many of which found their way onto early postcards as vignettes. These were not battle scenes but impressions of maneuvers, pomp, and everyday soldier life. He seemed to have a strong interest in horses that carried over into non-military equestrian cards.
Elisaveta Merkuryevna Bem (Elisabeth Bohm) 1843-1914
Bem was born in a time when attitudes toward girls were changing and so she was allowed to enter art school at an early age. She eventually went on to study at the Imperial Academy of Arts. In 1867 Elisabeth married a prominent violinist, Ludwig Bohm. She illustrated a number of magazines and children’s books with her watercolors, but she also worked in etching and in glass. Bem was also the first to turn the traditional paper cut silhouette into a more detailed lithographically printed illustration. She is best known however for her postcards, about were 350 published by the St. Eugenia Welfare Society. They often capture the way of life that was so prevalent in pre-revolutionary Russia.
Harriet M. Bennett 1852-?
Bennett was a very popular artist who painted in both oil and watercolor, and regularly exhibited at the Royal Academy after 1877. Much of her work was used in the 1880’s to illustrated children’s books. By the late 1890’s, E. Nister, an early printer of her work began to also publish her older book illustrations on postcards in Great Britain. They would again be placed on postcards by Theodor Stroefer in the 1920’s.
Claus Bergen 1885-1964
After studying at the Academy in Munich, Claus launched his successful career as a marine artist. In 1914 he became the official marine painter to Kaiser Wilhelm II, and produced many battle scenes and images of U-Boats during the First World War that were reproduced on postcards.
Fritz Bergen 1857-1941
After studying at the Leipzig Academy Fritz moved to Munich where he painted portraits and landscapes. He also provided illustrations for many chromolithographic postcards. During World War One he also created many black & white illustrations on military themes for children’s books, magazines, and postcards. His son was the noted marine painter Claus Bergen.
Fritzi Berger Dates unknown
Fritzi ran a fashion salon in Vienna with her sister Hilde. She designed fashion and textile postcards for the Wiener Werkstätte. Her brothers Josef and Artur were also artists.
Rudolf Bernt 1944-1914
Bernt began his studies in order to pursue a career in architecture, but after leaving the Academy Rosner he began working as a landscape artist. Most of his paintings, watercolors, and finely drafted drawings however display his interests and skills learned in his early architectural education. He is also known as an accomplished ornamentalist who applied all his skills in designing chromolithographic postcards.
Paul Emil Berthon 1872-1909
In 1893 Berthon moved to Paris where he studied at the Guerin School, most notably under Eugene Grasset. He became a painter, printmaker, and designer of furniture, and ceramics for Villeroy & Boch. He also produced much graphic work in the form of chromolithographic posters, prints, and by 1901, postcards. He designed many magazine covers and worked for Les Hommes and d’Aujourd’hut. Berthon was an expert lithographer who printed his own work whenever he could. By 1895 he began to exhibit at the National Salon, and two years later at the Salon of the Rose Croix. Most of his work combines images of women with flora in an Art Nouveau style that was heavily influenced by Medieval art.
Aurelio Bertigia 1891-1973
Bertigia worked as a painter, fashion designer, and graphic artist. While he produced numerous glamour cards, he is best known for his cartoon like chubby children. The best of these were put into use as comic propaganda cards that were printed during both World Wars.
Elsa Beskow 1874-1953
Beskow studied at the Technical School (Konstfact) in Stockholm. By 1894 she began contributing illustration to the children’s magazine Jultomten, and she went on to write and illustrate about 40 books of her own. Some of these stories were based on her Grandmother’s tales and have since become children’s classics. She also illustrated books for other others and primers for school children. Most of her work centers on fantasies set within the natural world that were drawn in a highly graphic style influenced by Swedish Romanticism. Beskow in turn would come to have much influence over other illustrators. Much of her work has been reproduced on postcards.
Anna Whelan Betts 1873-1952
Anna first studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Art in Philadelphia before moving to Paris. On her return to the United States she studied with Howard Pyle at the Drexel Institute. She began providing illustrations for magazines in 1899 beginning with Colliers and then Century, Harpers, Lady’s Home Journal and more. By 1904 she began illustrating books. Many of her more romantic illustrations appear on postcards published by M. Munk. Her failing eyesight however forced her to retire in 1925. In 1944 she moved in with her younger sister, Ethel Franklin Betts, in New Hope, PA.
Ethel Franklin Betts 1878-1956
Ethel studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Art in Philadelphia and then with Howard Pyle at the Drexel Institute. After moving to Germantown she began providing illustrations for magazines such as Scribners, but she was primarily worked as a children’s book illustrator. Though she illustrated The Complete Mother Goose and similar stories, her images published on postcards by M. Munk followed more romantic themes. Though she was a popular illustrator her Art Nouveau influenced style fell out of vogue following World War One. Her older sister Anna Whelan Betts was also a popular illustrator.
Alberto Bianchi 1882-1969
Bianchi was a painter and illustrator of posters and postcards. Many of his postcards were issued as propaganda during World War One but afterwards he concentrated on fashion and glamour cards.
Ernest Bieler 1863-1943
In1880 Bieler moved to Paris where he studied at the progressive Academies Colarossi and Julian, and then at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. While he found work providing illustrations for magazines by 1888 he had to reluctantly leave Paris due to financial problems and he moved to Geneva in 1894. Ten years earlier he had visited the commune Saviese high up in the Alps, and he was so taken by that experience that he moved his studio there in 1896. Bieler had worked in an impressionist style that was latter influenced by the Symbolists, though his graphic work fell into Art Nouveau. Here in the mountains he developed what became known as the Saviese Style. While in his own work he combined elements of realism with his more graphic tendencies, this style was not really about a look as much as displaying native folk honestly in nature. Bieler was a diverse artist creating paintings on canvas and glass, murals, woodcuts, mosaics, furniture, and graphic work. He began producing postcards around 1905.
Karl Biese 1862-1926
Bieses had worked as a stage painter before attending the Academy in Karlsruhe in 1883. In 1896 he became a cofounder of the art group Kunstlerbund. The Rhine valley and Black Forest provided much inspiration for his oils and watercolor landscapes, and he was especially noted for his winter scenes. In 1899 he joined the artist colony at Grotzinger. Many of his images were used to illustrate chromolithographic postcards. Biese was also a lithographer and he published simple color lithographic cards under his own name. These captured more subtle effects than most issued for tourists. After teaching for many years he retired to Tubingen.
Ivan J. Bilibin 1876-1942
Bilibin began studying Law at the St. Petersburg University in 1896 but within two years he had left for Munich to study art. Returning from his travels abroad he became the student of Ilya Repin. In addition to his graphic arts work he also started creating illustrations for children’s books in 1902. Between 1901 and 1912 he designed postcards that were issued in thematic sets. While his highly graphic style has some relation to Art Nouveau it is actually based more on Russian folk traditions, which were also the thematic center of his work. Flat colors with linear outlines painted in by brush are strong characteristics of his style. In 1910 he left the Union of Russian Artists to become one of the founding members of the reconstituted Mir Iskusstva (World of Art group) of which he became president in 1916. In 1920 during the turmoil of the Russian Civil War he moved to Egypt and did work for the Greek colony there until 1924. While Bilibin had worked on theatrical costume and stage design since 1907, this part of his career was accentuated after he moved to Paris in 1925. He continued to produce illustrations through the 1920’s and 30’s in his familiar style but his paintings now took on a much more realistic look. In 1934 Bilibin became a Soviet citizen and moved back to Leningrad two years later where he continued to work as an illustrator and set designer. He died during the siege of Leningrad in World War Two. Though Bilibin designed early chromolithographic postcards, many of his illustrations were latter placed on continental sized cards as reproductions; first through tricolor printing and then in offset lithography.
Mihály Bíró 1886 - 1948
Mihály Bíró, a Hungarian Jew entered the Budapest School of Applied Arts in 1904, which was followed by studies in Munich, Berlin, Paris and London. While in England he became highly influenced by the Arts & Crafts movement. On his return to Budapest in 1908, he became heavily involved with the Social Democratic Party and began producing graphic work for their newspaper, Népszava (People’s Voice). By 1912 he was designing costumes, stage sets and political posters. Biro served on the Serbian Front during the Great War, but he was discharged in 1917 after developing serious heart and lung problems that plagued him the rest of his life. Before the conflict ended, Bíró designed magazine covers as well as a number of charity and war loan posters. While he produced theater posters in the postwar years, he was most heavily involved in creating political propaganda for the new Hungarian Soviet Republic. Once a campaign of terror was launched against Communists and Jews, Bíró was forced to flee. He took up residence in Vienna in 1920 where he published a series of lithographs, the Horthy Album that depicted the horrors of the White Terror. These images also appear on a postcard set published by Arbelter-Buchhandlung. He then sought safe haven in Berlin, which lasted until 1933. As Nazi power rose, Biro was again forced to flee to Vienna, then to Pozsony, and by 1938 he was in Paris where his poor health saved him during the German occupation. After returning to Hungary in 1947, the new socialist government greeted him with honors but his death the following year cut short his acclaim.
Karl Blossfeld 1892-1957
Blossfield produced a wide variety of work while an illustrator working in Leipzig, though he seems to have largely concentrated on naval themes. These were represented in both propaganda and satire form issued during and in-between the two World Wars, sometimes with heavy symbolism. Many of these images appear on postcards along with his more traditional landscapes reproducing etchings.
Vladimir Valerjanovich Bogatkin 1922-1971
Between 1936 and 1940 Bogatkin attended the Leningrad Academy with further studies at the Nesterov Workshop. In 1944 he joined the Studio of Military Artists where he produced sets of lithographs. He painted his best known images after World War Two ended, which were largely based of the siege of Leningrad, the defense of Moscow, and the fall of Berlin. Many of these paintings were also used to illustrate postcards.
Hans Bohrdtd 1857-1945
Bohrdt fell in love with ships after visiting Hamburg when he was fifteen years of age. He taught himself marine painting, and his natural aptitude gained him recognition. He developed a personal friendship with Kaiser Wilhelm II after becoming his painting tutor, and the Kaiser continued to supported him as an artist. Bohrdt’s paintings became highly sought, and they were used on steamship line posters and postcards. While Raphael Tuck placed his images on their cards, more German publishers took up Bohrdt’s work as it grew ever more focused on promoting Germany’s maritime interests. He would produce strong propaganda cards during World War One, but often at the cost of his earlier artistic flair. In the postwar years Bohrdt lost his patronage and much of his subject mater as Germany’s large ships were handed over to the Allies as reparations. He would continue to work as a marine artist but largely in illustration.
Gino Boccasile 1901-1952
Despite loosing his left eye as a child, Boccasile took up a career in art. He moved to Milan in 1925 to work with the Mauzan-Morzenti Agency designing posters and fashion illustrations. Though he spent some time abroad in Buenes Aires and Paris, he eventually returned to Milan where he set up his own publicity agency (ACTA) in partnership with Franco Aloi. His work was included in the 1932 Salon des Independants. His bold glamour designs also found their way onto many magazine and book covers, but as a strong supporter of Fascism his interests began to turn toward propaganda work. This was issued in the form of both posters and continental sized postcards, some with quotes by Benito Mussolini on their backs, and many with racist and anti-Semitic themes. He joined the Italian S.S during World War Two and was arrested afterwards as a collaborator. This briefly hurt his career as an illustrator but he found work creating pornography for English and French publishers. In 1946 he developed a less recognizable style and began illustrating advertising campaigns.
Philip Boileau 1863-1917
Boileau, son of a French Diplomat traveled through Europe before settling down in Baltimore in 1897 where he began his career as a portrait painter. By 1900 he was living in Philadelphia and in 1902 he moved to New York where he set up a portrait studio. Within a few years he began doing commercial work creating pastel drawings to be illustrated on calendars, magazine covers and on postcards. He may have produced about 200 different cards that were issued by a variety of publishers, but most notably by Reinthal & Newman starting in 1907. Many of his illustrated portraits were of his second wife, Emily Gibbert, under the pseudonym Peggy, along with her nephew and neices. His glamourous depictions of women and children, sometimes with sentimental overtones, made him one of the most popular illustrators in the United States. The Boileau Girl came to typify the American Woman. In the years preceding World War One his images that took on a more apprehensive tone were widely printed and distributed in England. Boileau died of pneumonia at his Douglaston home in Queens.
Luigi Bompard 1879-1953
Bompard set up his first studio in the Bohemian section of Bologna in 1902 but moved to Rome sometime after 1904. In the next decade he had moved to Milan but returned to Rome after the First World War. He created many illustrations for posters and books including The Conquest of the South Pole, and contributed to the magazines Studio and Jugend. He also produced glamour postcard sets of women, that often captured subtle nuances of character in their poses and expression.
Louise Bosse-Kufstein 1878-1929
Bosse was an artist who produced highly stylized illustrations, some of which were used on postcards.
Otto Richard Bossert 1874-1919
After attending the Karlsruhe Academy, Bossert moved to Leipzig where he began teaching at the Academy in 1904. He also set up his studio there working as a portrait painter and graphic artist designing posters and postcards. He was well known for his prints; etchings created in a more contemporary academic style, and his bold woodblocks that drew from early German traditions. Some of these images depicted Normandy and Brittany where he summered.
Henri Boutet 1851-1919 (1921?)
Boutet made his career as a printmaker who concentrated in works in intaglio, but he also produced paintings and a wide variety of graphic work. He began exhibiting with the Societe des Artistes Francais and the Salon d’Automne in the late 1880’s. His best known work is a series of hand colored drypoints published in 1902 that depicted changing styles in French fashion under the title Les Modes Feminines. Most of his work however depicted the women of all classes found on the streets of Paris that were rendered in a sketchy crayon style. For this work he came to be called le petit Meitre au corset (the little Master of the corset). It is these drawings that has been placed on numerous postcards in the form of hand colored collotypes.
Frank William Brangwyn 1867-1956
Brangwyn lived his early childhood in Belgium before his family moved back to London in 1874. He received some artistic training from his father who was an aspiring architect and muralist before going to work at the workshop of William Morris in 1882. Despite his lack of formal training he became a prolific artist, who in addition to his paintings, prints, and murals designed furniture, interiors, stained glass, ceramics, and graphics. He provided illustrations for books, posters, and postcards. His first interest was in marine scenes, but after traveling around the Mediterranean while serving aboard a freighter he became very interested in Orientalism. Later bridges and windmills became some of his favorite subjects. Though not an official war artist, he produced a series of eighty powerful propaganda images for posters and postcards during World War One. Some were so violently anti-German it was rumored that the Kaiser had personally put a bounty on his head. His work was not widely accepted as his unique self-taught style did not easily fit into current trends in England at that time. It is ironic that though he was stylistically more of a modernist, the attitudes expressed in his work captured old ideas of Empire that were quickly fading.
Hugo L. Braune 1875-Unknown
Braune attended the Leipzig Academy and the Weimar School before moving to Berlin in 1908. He became a painter, printmaker, and illustrator depicting fanciful subjects based on folklore, fairy tales, and the operas of Wagner. A number of these images were made for postcards. Braune served in World War One, and disappeared sometime during World War Two, presumed dead.
George Reiter Brill 1867-1918
Brill was a painter and illustrator best known for his potato-like characters known as Ginks. Many of these cartoonish drawings were placed postcards. He is also known for his illustrations in Rhymes of the Golden Age, first published in 1908.
Nina K. Brisley 1888-1978
Nina, along with her sisters Ethol and Joyce Lankester were all watercolorists who painted illustrations for the publisher Alfred Vivian Mansell. Her best know children’s books were issued in series, such as The Chalet School and The Abbey Girls.
Thomas Arthur Browne 1870-1910
Browne was working as an apprentice in a printshop when he began freelancing as a cartoonist in 1888. In two years he began contributing to Comic Cuts magazine, and his success their allowed him to move to London where demand quickly grew for his work. He had published his first comic strip, He Knew How To Do It, in 1896, which was followed by Dan Leno, Weary Willy & Tired Tim, and Airy Alf & Bouncing Billy. By 1997 he was printing comics out of his own Nottingham lithography shop, Tom Browne & Co. As an avid cyclist, Browne traveled around the world making cartoons of his adventures. His linear graphic style was well suited for postcards and many comic cards are adorned with his humor. He is also known to have painted sentimental subjects.
Frances Isabele Brundage 1854-1937
Francis took up illustration to support herself after being abandoned by her artist father, Rembrandt Lockwood, while she was still in her teens. In 1886 she married marine painter William Tyson Brundage, who she sometimes collaborated with. After moving to Brooklyn she was hired by Raphael Tuck & Sons to illustrate children’s books, but in 1900 she began designing many of their early chromolithographic postcards; work that often took her to England. By 1910 she was illustrating additional holiday postcards in Britain for Sam Gabriel and Misch. While about 300 postcards carry her work, she was much more prolific as a book illustrator. She had a long career designing a wide variety of items and working for many publishers.
Umberto Brunelleschi 1874-1949
Brunelleschi attended the Academy in Florence before moving to Paris in 1900. There he found work as a set designer for the ballet, but he mostly did illustrations for books and fashion magazines including Le Rive. He went back to Italy in 1914 when war broke out but returned to Paris four years later after serving in the Italian Army. He quickly resumed his connections with the theater but now mostly as a costume designer working for the Folies Bergere and others. Brunelleschi had produced lithographic prints in a highly decorative style but in the postwar years his flat colors and distinct line work allowed him to easily switch to pochoir. La Guirlande published many of his illustrations as pochoir postcards. His subjects revolved around glamour and the erotic. He used the pseudonym Harun-al-Rashid on some of his orientalist inspired work.
Clara Miller Burd 1873-1933
Burd attended the National Academy of Design in 1892 followed by further studies in Paris in 1898. She would also study stain glass design at the Tiffany Studio, going on to design many pieces for J.&R. Lamb Company and Church Glass & Decoration Company. Much of Burd’s output was as an illustrator producing work for children’s books and fairy tales. She also provided many covers for magazines such as Woman’s Home Companion, Woman’s World, Modern Priscilla, Farmer’s Wife, and Canadian Home Journal. Many of her illustrations featuring children were placed on postcards.
Thomas Bushby 1861-1918
Bushby was primarily a landscape painter who worked in watercolors. He Moved to Carlisle in 1884 where he provided images to be lithographed onto tin boxes for Hudson Scot & Sons. The publishers E.T.W. Dennis and Raphael Tuck also both reproduced his landscapes on postcards.
Adolfo Busi 1891-1977
Busi studied at the Bologna Academy and took part in the 1914 Roman Secession. He primarily worked in graphic design for advertisers, and as an illustrator of classic fairytales for children’s books. His work was used for propaganda purposes during the First World War. Afterwards in the 1920’s, he gave much more of his attention to creating posters and glamour postcards.